1775 – 1815
The Timeless Scottish Artisan Design
The Rattlesnake Buttons


Robert J. Silverstein

18th Century Jacobites & Scottish Royal Culture History

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Dale R. Hawley

Judaeo-Christianity & Ancient Symbols Meanings

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1792/5 Philadelphia Rattlesnake Allusion
2 Baby Rattles in the Mouth showing Vermont & Kentucky
entering into the unification of states
Made with the foresight of the War of 1812

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Scottish Royal Culture & Judaeo-Christian Re-Purposed Propaganda

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The Revolutionaries of the Old World Order

The Sons of Liberty Red & White Stripe Flag, * Liberty Cap buttons, * Rattlesnake Buttons & Flags, * and George Washington Inaugural buttons were all different mechanisms of Revolutionary Propaganda. For our 18th Century American colonists the symbols all carried the same underlying message of Liberty and Independence. One that was away from the Parliament and Crown’s tyranny suffocating laws. The one underlying historical take-away is that all of histories symbolism was transformed in context use and Re-purposed into Propaganda to fit the Revolutionaries narrative. This was not a quick transformation of messaging as one might think, but one that was developed over time through a manifestation of breaks in social contracts. The transformational messaging was worked-on over a number of years by disgruntled American colonists in the Patriot movement (Sons of Liberty & Various Committees of Safety, ect..), and earlier mid-1700’s grass-roots underground movements in England, France, Italy, and Scotland.
-RJ. Silverstein


The Beginning Symbolism & The Aftermath

After Caesar’s death, Mark Antony staged a grand funeral for Caesar. The dictator’s popularity was such a dissention that a riot developed in Rome. This led to Caesars impromptu cremation in the Roman Forum. Some of the assassins, including Brutus and Cassius, took this as a cue to leave Rome, though they never gave up their official positions. The remaining assassins put a “Positive Propaganda Spin” on the events, celebrating it as an end to tyranny. (The Revolutionaries Goals to a Republic) An amnesty was negotiated – though a Senate agreement (Continental Congress & British Empire) to ratify all of Caesar’s decisions. A new coin was minted, showing two daggers and the “Pileus”, the Cap of Liberty worn by freed Roman slaves, which was the Populus of the Roman Republic. (Colonists freed of British Rule). Symbol Transformation of messaging to fit History’s Eras’ when social contracts are broken. Egyptians had freethinkers who wrapped their heads in caps, Bastille Day in 1789, for the French Revolution- all used Liberty Cap as a symbolic message of freedom from tyranny. All cultures Re-purposed the symbolic imagery to fit their propaganda messaging in their revolutions of social contracts. All called for a New World Order…. One of Freedom & Self determination.
-RJ. Silverstein


   The Stargate Arch of Sovereignty                     * Sirius, The Dog Star *                                      The Honey Bee
13 States W/ 5 Pointed Stars Represents        The Brightest Star in the Sky                        This is a Biblical Reference             

America taking its “Rightful Place”            Shinning down on the New Republic.                  for the Devine Right of Kings
in the 
Celestial Heavens as other        Sirius in the center, 7 for God & his workings,        through the House of Stuart via
established worldly nations have.     3 for Biblical Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, & Jacob.  the Merovingian King bloodlines
*                      *                                                                        *                                                                      *                      

* God’s Love shinning down on America through the Scottish Royal Bloodline *

Scottish Royal Culture & Devine Numbers
* 3, 5, 7, 8, & 13 *

The Jacobite Uprising of 1745                                                                                   The Honey Bee’s Body 
Prince Edward Stuart used the                                                                            This is both a Devine link to God
Liberty Cap & Pole in a printed                                                                      and a reference to the 7 Earls of Scotland
propaganda campaign aimed at                                                           and the Wings are the King and Queen of Scotland.
Scottish Clan leaders & European nobles
for the Restoration of the House of Stuart.

*John Morin Scot was the 1st person in America to stake a Liberty Cap & Pole in the City of New York as a Rebellious propaganda symbol for the Sons of Liberty messaging. John M. Scot’s lineage has direct ties into the House of Stuart bloodlines.

The New World Order 

     There was a grass roots movement among the newly landed gentry in America that would flourish into a bridge between the established aristocracy of old wealth, and university elites. This bridge would take form under a new founded Patriotism / Nationalism of the American Revolutionary movement. These were men of America’s rising class were tired of being on the short end of established social contracts between the age old established governments led by religious leaders, monarchies and their nobles. The Enlightenment movement offered New Enlightened Ideals that originated in Scotland’s Universities and then branched out into Scottish and England’s aristocracy. Soon other European neighboring countries saw the social contract benefits of these new Ideals it questioned the individuals relationships with God, and their unfettered independence of Prosperity, which was away from established government social-political-economic contracts. These progressive revolutionaries with their New Enlightened Ideals of social contract change would take a grass-root movement in English, Scottish, French, and in America’s Social clubs in the 1760’s & 1770’s. This would lead into the American Revolution. These organized Revolutionaries (as part of the Sons of Liberty Organizations) were looking to reform British established political-economic-social contracts into a new kind-of social construct calling for a “New World Order,” which was a societal move away from Devine Rights of Kings to Individual Responsibility for ones own actions and relationships with God.


     We could we reasonably say with some assurance that all Liberty Cap & Pole buttons consistently carried a consistent propaganda message of Liberty and Independence regardless of which countries used it in their Rebellion. Even though other contemporary countries such as, Argentina used this symbol for their propaganda messaging, we can still credit its origins to the ancient Egyptians and Romans. For 18th century America and France i would have to give credit to the House of Stuart Royal Family Civil War with the establishment of the Hanover Monarchy of George I of Great Britain around 1698 to 1700, just after Ernest Augustus the elector of Hanover died. The Phrygian Cap and Pole was first re-introduced by George I in his propaganda war against the King James II & VII of Scotland & England in his attempt to regain the throne of England after his dethronement in the Glorious Revolution in 1688. This was a propaganda campaign which was targeted directly toward the Sir Knights of the Order of the Garter, and the English Nobles of Court. He cleverly used the ancient Phrygian Cap & Pole symbol as a persuasive measure to wrestle control away from Scottish and English supporters who believed in the Devine Right of Kings; and supported the natural restitution of James II & VII after the death of William III of Orange & Mary II.

     The Liberty Cap and Pole was then re-used by Prince Edward Stuart and turned back against George II the Hanoverian King of England in 1745/46. The Bonnie Prince used the Phrygian Cap and Pole in an active propaganda campaign to unite the Scottish Clan families out of power in-order to reinstitute Prince Edward Stuart back to the throne of England. After the Bonnie and Clan Army lost at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, fleeing members of the Scottish Royal Court loyal to the House of Stuart fled to France and Italy. Having found sanctuary in France, Jacobite sympathizers continued an undercurrent movement against the King of England which spread throughout parts of Europe and within England’s High Society Social Clubs. The Scot’s War never died, but hibernated in Scotland, England, and France and slowly blossomed into a geographical disenfranchised underground movement utilizing members positions of power in society and media campaigns against the King of England.

The French inscription was a twist until you take into account that Scottish Heritage Gentry in America did come by way of France.


1760’s to 1770’s Scottish Royal Liberty Button
A Charcoal Green with Silver Highlights.

Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Impressed Design of Bee then Hand-Engraved Silver-Wash Copper.
The Size: 32mm. Coat Size.
Rarity: R-7 (1 known) Strict Observance Scottish Revolutionaries.
Variety Type: Jacobite Liberty Button / Eye of Providence / Honey Bee /13 Stars to Represent Colonies.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, A Strong Planchet Condition Remains, A Strong Impression Remains.
Robert’s Notes: This is a Scottish-Rite Lodge fraternity button most likely used by a Jacobite who was a member of the Revolutionary Sons of Liberty organization. The button was most likely worn only in a Masonic lodge to show support for the restoration of the House of Stuart. This particular button was most likely made for a specific lodge member who is part of the Royal Bloodline families to the House of Stuart (Prince Edward Stuart). The Bumble Bee within the Liberty Cap represents the “Devine Right of Kings” of the Stuart family by way of the Merovingian King lineage to Jesus. Above the Liberty Cap is a “Stargate Arch” with thirteen (America) 5 point Stars signifying its place with other established nations in the Celestial Heavens. Sirius the brightest star in the night time sky shines down on the Jacobites New Republic. The Liberty Cap & Pole was used in a printed propaganda campaign or restoration of the House of Stuart by the Young Pretender in 1745/46. It was aimed at Scottish Clansmen who’s lineage was barred from political & economic power by the Hanoverians since the Glorious Revolution in 1688. This movement continued on with Scottish Gentry in America and known on both sides of the Atlantic as a generational Scots War. This button symoolizes how Scottish families discreetly played chess through freemasonry against George III, and used Jacobite sympathizers through vehicles of the media and social clubs to move their agenda in the restoration of the House of Stuart. Prince Edward Stuart to regain the Crown in America?

This Scottish Liberty Button was found on a Revolutionary War homesite on the River Terrance in the City.

General Murcer’s mother in-law’s property was sold to Washington’s Nephew, then later owned by Robert Scot’s son Robert Scot JR Private merchanter / Ship Captain. 



1760’s to 1770’s French Design Sons of Liberty Button “Liberte All”
A Charcoal Gray with an Ochre of Red Highlights.

Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Pewter Mold, Raised Design.
The Size: 20mm. Vest Size.
Rarity: R-7 (1 or 2 known) Most Likely Virginia Freemason Revolutionaries.
Variety Type: American Revolutionaries (Sons of Liberty Liberty) Cap Button / French Design / American Made / Southern State Variant.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, A Good Planchet Condition, A Good Raised Design Remains.
Robert’s Notes: I believe this vest size button belonged to a member of some kind of Sons of Liberty Organization in Virginia. Robert Milburn pointed out to me that Norfolk Virginia SOL’s were very active revolutionaries and i would have to agree. Unfortunately, we can not give an exact provenance, but we can tightly date the button’s construction within ten years. We do have several clues to help give us an educated guess based on it being a molded pewter button which is consistent with American made construction. We also know that American Sons of Liberty Revolutionaries were in Rebellion during the late 1760’s through the mid 1770’s. The French inscription was a twist until you take into account that some Scottish Heritage Gentry in America did come by way of France. Could it have been silvered at one time? 

Robert J. Silverstein’s Isabela Collection.
Dug by Packy S. along the Appomattox River Sept 18, 2018.



Late 1760-1770’s LI  BER  TY An American Citizen Revolution Button
Dusty Gray.
Flat, 1-Piece, Pewter Mold, Raised Design
The Size: 
17mm. Cuff Size
R-7 (1 of 2 known) Dug Together
Variety Type: 
American Revolutionaries (Sons of Liberty, Committee of Safety, ect..)
Present Condition:
An Excavated Specimen, A Good Planchet Condition, A Good Raised Design Remains.
Robert’s Notes: 
I believe this vest size button belonged to a member of some kind of American citizen Revolutionary Committee formed against British injustices in Upstate New York.

Gary Noon Dug 2 in Ghent New York 04-30-21



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 The picture above tells a story of how Jacobite sympathizers in England, and Free French Forces join America’s Rebels against the Crown of England in an attempt for a social contract change.
RJ. Silverstein Collection 


 1478 drawing of an Alchemical Tract, by Theodoros Pelecanos.
Alchemy was the ancient branch of “Natural Philosophy.” A Philosophical and Protoscientific
tradition practiced throughout Europe originating in Greco-Roman Egypt in the first few centuries AD.


Rattlesnake Propaganda Messaging in a Nut Shell

The symbol of the Rattlesnake was one of “several propaganda messages” that was used during the American Revolution against the British and their Loyalists . The symbol’s underlying message was refined and its symbol’s intent was transformed to give warning by the early colonial radicals. The Rattlesnake symbolism was cleverly used most likely because it had a common religious denominator by European migrants. This transformational symbolism provided the means of different nationalities to easily adopt it spiritually & religiously. As depicted in Revolutionary buttons, flags, and other relics of the era the Rattlesnake symbol served as a principle rally-cry flag against British Parliamentary policies, which stripped away at the prosperity of the colonist’s European migrants. In order to get a complete picture and understanding of the Rattlesnake symbol’s significance we would have to explore the significance of the message it carried for each nationality for its adoption. Unfortunately, in American history books it has been portrayed through a narrow looking glass instead of the wide-scope of nationalities who had specific interests in social, religious, and economic prosperity in their new found homeland. History tends to portray the Revolutionary calendar of events as if these settling European migrants of diverse nationalities were assimilated with a single intent under a unifying government or common good. Unfortunately, this assimilation of “out of many — one people” path forward would not start until after the new erected federal government of 1789. This would be five years later after the Revolutionary War; when the newly found states began to see cracks in state run governments for economic prosperity. This Revolutionary symbol of the Rattlesnake and it’s symbolism would date to fifteen years prior to this event.
So, how did the Revolutionaries living in the British colonies of the 18th century move forward toward a new radical form of government? History tells us that their European forefathers from which the nations they migrated from failed in any revolutionary change in social contracts. Be it by political change or uprisings. There are many parts to this answer, but one can definitely surmise that all had some form of propaganda warfare with motivational symbolism such as our transformational Rattlesnake. In America the Rattlesnakes symbolism would play an important propaganda role in changing and creating a new(Revolutionary) public sentiment. Unfortunately, there is no one spark or igniting breech of social contract for the American Revolution to point our finger at, but an accumulation of events that would need to have an anti-establishment undertone to create a rally-cry symbol as a revelry flag, such as America’s Rattlesnake accomplished. This changing sentiment of social contracts should be viewed as an accumulation of events over time that slowly swept through Europe in Jacobite Wars, London’s underground movement, and then cultivated transformationally on America’s shores with the Sons of Liberty and the triumphant George Washington.
The Propaganda Movement:         
Stemming out of the Glorious Revolution of 1698, Prince Edward Stuart ended-up transforming and repurposing several historical propaganda symbols that were used later on in the American Revolution (such as the Liberty Cap & Pole). These transformed narrative propaganda symbols were repurposed and cultivated first by the Scots and then by the colonists against the British throughout the next century. This repurposed propaganda would gain a sort of spiritual form by different nationalities through Jacobite Wars, Religious prosecutions, underground movements, and credited Universities who’s professors were worshiped by the New European Aristocracy for their Enlightenment and Idealisms for new social contracts.
Nationality Building Blocks:
When their is a failure in social contracts it causes a grass-roots movement for a change in culture and calls for a transformation of social and economic contracts. As with all change in national cultures their has to be an oppressed segment of society that have reached their limit and would seek-out found like-minded individuals. When influential like-minded people have no political avenues to bring change, a rebellion forms underground which encroaches on established social-political contracts. For the people in North America living in the British colonies it was a transformational repurposed propaganda movement that utilized the indigenous Rattlesnake. There is a lot of conjecture about why the Rattlesnake was chosen. As Franklin valued his relationship with the American Native (Indians), one could say the Rattlesnake was associated with violence and revenge. The Rattlesnake was seen as divine punishment to wreak vengeance on sinful people or families who act out of malice toward others. The American Rattlesnake is considered by Herpetologists to be the newest or most recently evolved snake in the world. I mention this fact because snake symbolism has century old roots within European cultures and the Ouroboros Snake was used in the early underground Scottish and English movements of the 1760’s & 1770’s. Several cultural artifacts (Belt buckles, clasps, hat pins, broaches, ect..) of this snake eating its own tail can be tied to different cultural religious or superstitious beliefs. This symbolism should be looked at as a cultural root understood by many nationalities, but is “not” and should not be classified as the use of the Rattlesnake symbol in the Propaganda war by the early American Revolutionaries. The American radicals desired public sentiment change in established social contracts. One can make a strong argument that the Rattlesnake is “repurposed propaganda”  as the “Liberty Cap & Pole” and other unifying objects that appealed to the diverse nationalities that would make-up the American Cause. There is an underlying symbolism tie with religious of spiritual connotation.
The Rattlesnake is only native to the New World and could have been chosen because this was no longer seen as an extension of the Scot’s War and has turned into an is an American struggle by immigrants who were no longer saw themselves as European citizens. One can say that the Rattlesnake emulates human emotion and sentiment and would become a Rally-Cry, or seen by some as a Revolutionaries Flag (Gadsden) to fight the British Rule of law and forced social-economic contracts. As America came into its own country during the post-revolutionary war years we find various types of public and military relics carrying the Rattlesnake symbol. This symbol would signify and only play “tribute to the Cause’s struggle” and carry an underlying meaning of self determination and prosperity for the individual. The Rattlesnake symbol of this era would represent the individual American’s fortitude and strength as a divine right would have in the past centuries. After the Revolutionaries victory, America’s society would transform and move forward with the New Ideals that were promoted by the Cause. As we moved into a new Enlightened Age free of the Old World Order we would replace the Rattlesnake with the American eagle. There was a conscious shift in thought toward a New World Order and Americans would be on its frontier with new established social contracts between the government and society. The Eagle would take up that banner of symbolism and the Rattlesnake symbol would be the perch for accession. Any use of the Rattlesnake symbol after the emergence of the eagle would just play an honorary symbolic tribute to the Causes struggle.


The Rattlesnake Buttons of the Revolutionaries 

     Rattlesnake Buttons were made in both England and France. To date (2019) there have been three Rattlesnake buttons dug in England all approximately one hour travel outside of England. To appropriately grasp and take-in the era, Rattlesnake button collectors must understand the American Revolution was known as a “Scot’s War” on both sides of the Atlantic. America was nothing more than an Address for Great Britain. In Scotland’s Universities and England’s social clubs during the 1760’s there was an underground movement that worked against the King of England. They provided a new movement dubbed the age of Enlightenment. They put forth “New Ideals” which tried to change and fade back centuries of Devine Right of Kings rule and Religious hierarchies of power. In Scotland, university professors would wield their influence on graduates and aristocrats who were sympathetic to their new views of change. In England it was slightly more underground using social clubs who’s members were in political positions of power for the King and country by the day, and then secretly meeting at night airing their disgruntlement with the throne and planning how to topple the established societal contracts by which people live by. This is how we tie all this in for the Scottish Jacobite undercurrent of the American revolution. If we follow the dethronement of King James II in 1698, it leads to a progression of wars in Scotland and England which continued on to a finality in the American Revolution. Jacobites must be accurately depicted as the basis for providing New Enlightened Ideals, Constitutional Freedoms, and Cultural Symbol Tributes. These three factors were allowed to culminate and work “more openly” in the British colonies who’s European colonists felt a detachment to the overseeing monarchy. Flash points of social contracts would occur producing a citizen based Patriot movement that would give way to a post war American nationalism. These Revolutionaries who met in neighborhood Masonic Clubs and taverns would become Revolutionary Patriots and their Bade was the American Rattlesnake button. The one important note about Rattlesnake buttons is that their designs catered to all European nationalities in efforts to be inclusive in the struggle for independence. 

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A:1                 British Design                                  A:2          British Design
*                 Dug in America only                                  Found in Great Britain & America

     There appears to be a slight design difference in both Rattlesnake buttons, but from it’s construction one can reasonably imply they were both made in England. There is a third design only found in America which the snakes head is in reverse and uses the designs of the American pointed stars. Collectors can reasonably assume that certain design patterns were fabricated by more then one manufacturer. Meaning, France could have designed a more American Pointed Star to cater to the Revolutionaries in the American market while the traditional English stars were catered to Americans as well as Englishmen who were Jacobite sympathizers in the British market. The fact remains that all Rattlesnake designs were sold to Revolutionaries who worked on opposite sides of the Atlantic to usher in a New World Order of individual liberty and personal responsibility for their own prosperity. This was a transatlantic underground movement which moved away from the Devine Right of Kings and religious hierarchies of power. 

B:1  Scottish & British Integrated Religious Design      B:2  British Celestial Design
* Dug at the home of Brigadier General Augustas Washington. Found in Great Britain


B:3          British Religious Design                         B:4         British Design
                  Dug in Great Britain                                          Dug in America

B:3 Since this button was dug in the United Kingdom on the river banks of Strood (the unitary authority in the medway of Kent in the south east of England), it serves as clear evidence that British & French artisans re-purposed Scottish & English history of Charles I &II Resistance and Restoration as propaganda to fit the American Patriot Cause. Meaning they transformed or morphed the serpent devouring its own tail analogy into America’s indigenous Rattlesnake somewhere in the 1760’s-1770’s.

Next, is the transfiguration of the meaning of the Chain Link. This pattern was said to be the idea of Benjamin Franklin for early currency such as the 1776 Continental Dollar or the later 1787 Fugio Cent. This is not the truth by a far stretch. This was actually Re-purposed Propaganda again such as, the Liberty Cap and Pole, or the American Rattlesnake Buttons. This again drives from 18th century England around the 1760’s I believe with the underground Jacobite movement against the Hanoverians. As with the 1760’s Eternity Snake below it shows a united front against the Hanover King and his Order of 12 Knights for the Restoration of the Rightful Stuart King. Under the Patriot Allusion of the “13 States Uniting Together,”  Robert Scot & his Philadelphia Artisans were able to use sort-of-an evolutionary process of the “Old Serpent of Resistance” taken from Charles I to Charles II reign. Cleverly, they were able to transfigure the Ouroboros symbol into a New Chain Link Symbol. On one front it provided the American citizens the Allusion of a Unity representation. While it’s substructure of a completed linked-circle inferred to the meaning of the English use of the true Ouroboros meaning,”Time is Renewed” and the (chain link) circle is now closed for the rebirth (of the New Republic).


B:2 the struggle in america during revolutionary war period. the design implies unity with the Catholic French
Jacobite’s of Scottish decent that left Scotland and resettled in France

C:1 Scottish Royal Culture Undertone, English Design
*            Dug in the United states

C:1 I see God’s number “7.”  This would be a religiously motif Rattlesnake button hereby integrating Scottish Catholicism into America’s religious fabric of English Christianity. While English & German Anglo-Saxon Christian Patriots see thirteen 6 petal flowers in reference to the states, Scottish Jacobites see the the petal’s shape as the Regnal Jewels of Scotland. The Bonnie being “6” and the right-hand-of-God. While normal on-lookers see normal ordinary flower petal crosshatches, religious Jacobite Revolutionaries would see all roads lead to God in the “center” revealing his number “7″. While European American Patriots see 13 stripes for the unification and identification of the 13 colonies, Scottish Jacobites see a dome representing the rising or raising of the New Republic flag free of Devine Right of Rule. This is not the old representation of Prince Edward Stuart and the Order of the Garter (13) “English Bars”, but being the rise or more accurately the “Restitution” of the Scottish Royal families ascending back into power in America’s New Republic.

*The transfiguration first into Rattlesnake Buttons and then later into America’s New Federal insignia was done by using Scottish Royal Culture’s Authority and Devine Rights as the “underlying fabric” in America’s New Republic. This was an “Unpublicized Measure” taken in-order to end a century of transatlantic  “British Scotophobia” produced by the proactive propaganda measure taken by the Hanoverian Devine Right to Rule in a “Societal Indoctrination.” -R.J.S 


D:1           Scottish-English Design                               D:2         British Design

D:1 This is a Scottish-English design paying tribute the Prince Edward Stuart via the Devine Right of Kings of the Bethlehem Star that coincides with his December birth star he was born under. Since the evangelist Mathew does not tell us what the Bethlehem Star looked like; what color it was or exactly how many rays came from it; 18th century religious figures usually gave mans affiliation through five or six points even though Christian symbolism attached to the star could be 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 and 12. Four Point Star is the Natal Star representing Jesus Birth. Five Pointed Star mathematically known as a “Pentagram” with one point aimed at the heavens symbolized the 5 wounds of Christ. The Six Point Star known as the “Creator Star” recognizes Jesus’ Jewish origins and God created the world in six days. The Eight Point Star recognizes Mary’s birthday and her Immaculate conception. The Nine Point star reminds us of the fruits of the Holy Spirit: Love, Joy, Peace, Patience, Kindness, Generosity, Faithfulness, Gentleness, and Self-Control. Last is the 12 Point star which brings to mind the 12 Apostles as well as the 12 Tribes of Israel.

D:1 & D:2 The thirteen bars represent a multi-layer allusion of tribute to America’s 13 States Union for independence; The Scottish or English King of England and his 12 Sir Knights of the Order of the Garter / Thistle; Jesus and his 12 Apostles. 

D:1     Dug in USA, French Design                         D:2      Dug in USA, French Design 

Multi-Allusions Working in Concert
RJ. Silverstein Collection

The Fleur de lis in the center means France is in the middle of the Scot’s War and acts as a shield against the British while showing support for the 13 colonies for their independence.

You should be tasting sweetness from the fruit provide by the tree look within the examples and you will see the serpent. This should make an interesting addition to your rattlesnake section if you get the whole picture.

Satan and God as represented by the numbers 6 & 7  and these two numbers bookend our reality I find it interesting and you should also that the center of the Fleur de Lis lands on the 7th bar silhouetted by 6 bars on each side and of course the bottom of the Fleur De Lis has three prongs similar to the broad arrow mark. A gift back to you.

The number 10 used in the tail rattles for the French Rattlesnake buttons has several layers of religious Allusion. For our French freedom fighter revolutionaries it most likely symbolized the completion of the cycle. The number has several religious significance throughout the Old Testament and Bible. Ten was seen as the number of Heaven and the World in terms of Universal creation. Since, 10 is the first number that requires a separate part it reflects how everything has an opposite working against each other in-order for one to work properly. Meaning, the number 10 symoolizes and represents a complete and perfect number. In religion ten could be broken down into its significant parts. The number four is the number of physical creation, and six is the number of man. In its combined conclusion 10 would mean testimony, law, responsibility, and the completeness of worldly order. In an overlay, God gave man the 10 Commandments; Therefore 10 represents mans responsibility to keep those Commandments. In Genesis 1 the earliest introduction of the number 10, God said ten times, which is a testimony of His creative power. In Exodus the Passover Lamb was selected on the 10th day, and the Lamb takes away the sins of the world. In Tarot the Ten card represents the Wheel of fortune and the Wheel symbolize the beginning of a new cycle. Plus lets not forget Virginia was the 10th state admitted to the union of June 25th 1788….lmao


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PR:1 New Republic, Scottish Masonry Undertone          PR:2 New Republic, Scottish Masonry Undertone
*    Commonly Found in Northern United States              Commonly Found in Southern United States

PR:2 This is a Masonic Jacobite Tribute Variation who’s design artistry most likely originates in Philadelphia under Robert Scot’s umbrella. The Rattlesnake’s head is an exact replica of the Philadelphia Grand Lodge Flag. The sister variant C:2 with the Rattlesnake wrapped around the pole depicts a more snake head depiction without Scottish Royal Culture tribute. The Phrygian Cap motif was taken from Prince Edward Stuart’s propaganda use in 1745/6 uprising. The snakes body coiled around the pole illustrates the 18th century British Royal Family Civil War between the Scottish and English family members of the House of Stuart. Both sides of the family claim the Devine Right to Rule over Scotland, England, and Ireland. The divergence begins in 1625 with James I of England & Anne of Denmark son and daughter’s destinies. It would be inappropriate to give American Patriot Rattlesnake buttons liberty cap & pole proper affiliation to the Roman Senates earlier use. The Bonnies propaganda use toward “usurper” King George II during the Jacobite Clan uprising in early 1745 did however. The 13 Cosmic Eggs form in a Celestial Arch over the Rattlesnake, Liberty Cap & Pole. This is a Scottish-Rite affiliation from ancient Scottish Royal Culture history often referred to as a Masonic “Star Gate” or “Star Arch.” This is a direct reference to the ancient belief of man’s true origins lie in the stars. 

Since, most people of their inherent nationalities automatically recognized their own history of the symbols they saw depicted in these buttons maybe it might be best for me to provide a demonstration (C:2) instead of me giving historical information of the symbols.

RJ. Silverstein’s Clockwise-Counter Clockwise Proposition: There could be some undercurrent messaging by artisan designers who were trying to capture the political feeling held by disgruntled Jacobite’s in England’s social clubs for the Hanoverian rule. The counter-clockwise would represent the Hanover Dynasty’s (King=1) rise to power through his Protestant religion who was politically maneuvered into the leadership over the (12) Sir Knights of the Order of the Garter (1+12=13 Rattles). The Clockwise design would represent Scotland’s Prince Edward Stuart who is the rightful Catholic male heir of the House of Stuart, and legitimate leader of the Order of the Garter. I only put forth the proposition because political buttons usually contain subliminal messaging with a specific intent or purpose. This does not mean that this proposition applies to all Rattlesnake designed buttons either. My purpose is to make you think and understand the social political environment in-which the buttons were created. 

PR:4 America’s New Republic, A French Design             PR:5 America’s New Republic, A Scottish Design
*                        Post Revolution                                                         Post Revolution

PR:1 & 2 This would be one of the first designs moving away from the Charles I & II Resistance and Restoration motif of the snake devouring its own tail. The idea was to capture America’s embrace of the New Age of Enlightenment, which was taking hold in America’s New Republic. With the Enlightened Era’s New Ideals which were backed by natural science and some basic individual freedom & liberty principles drafted out of the Masonic Constitution; we as a people would be able grow and break the shackles of the Old World Order and create a new society of equality. Rattlesnake designs moving forward out of post-revolution (as early as 1779) will no-longer reflect the snake devouring its own tail.


PR:6     The New Republic 1792, Scottish Design Found in a Park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.                                          

PR:6 This is a Scottish Royal Culture tribute design which was made approximately 10 years after the American Revolution. This is the only rattlesnake design that depicts two small teeth in the rattlesnakes mouth, which acts as a reflection of the creation, infancy, and admission of the first two two new states outside of the original 13 (Vermont (14) and Kentucky (15)) into the union in 1792.

There are many allusions at play that work in concert, but all have a Scottish Royal Culture tie which provides a Jacobite related undertone. The six cosmic eggs on the outside would be the religious layer reflecting the Bethlehem Star of Jesus in the celestial heavens (above). This correlates directly with Prince Edward Stuart’s birth star in December of 1720, and the underlying premises of his birth and Devine Right to rule as the right hand of God. The seven inner eggs is a reflection of man (below) and reflective of the Jacobite origins steaming from King James VII. and religious incorporation of God’s number “7” in the center working through man. The Rattlesnake itself is another multi-meaning overlay. First, by the Rattlesnake not eating its own tail it signifies the movement was past the Resistance and Restoration century old struggle. The Rattlesnake not devouring the 13 rattles can also signify the break of the King of England and Order of the Garters control over society. Second, The shape of the rattlesnakes body reflects the Bonnie Prince’s 5 Petal White Rose, which was emulated by the Scot’s during the Jacobite uprising of 1745/6 and the American Revolution. By providing a false tail rattle it reflects the undercurrent support of Scotland’s Prince Edward Stuart from Italy and France.

***   **   ***  **   ***             ***   **   ***   **   ***             ***   **   ***   **   ***

With some historical information on key figures of the era by Dale Hawley and Gary Gianotti i was able to capture the 18th century thinking of the world’s elite class, and how they maneuvered and positioned themselves their interests to work in their benefit and expense of society. The Revolutionary design artisans who lived under class stratification understood their position in life and clearly made tribute to these wealthy individuals in their artistry. They designated certain signature marks or depictions to these Royals and nobles that were undisclosed to the general public.  

The Hawley Proposition

In the diagram above there is evidence that the artisan of the Rattlesnake button gave tribute to the Jewish Rothschild family by using Solomon’s Seal as a hidden tribute within the 6 point pentagram design. By using the Hebrew Star incorporated with the Rattlesnake design it sub-meaningly displays the gratitude for help during the Revolution and Post-Revolution. By using a 6 point Hebrew star it directly spoke a message to the Rothschilds family members, Red Shield members, and illuminati.  

The Rothschild Family Coat of Arms uses all five colors as illustrated in the Jewish Star in the Graph. Each represents a brother that had helped America’s New Republic in gaining stability. The black star in the overlay represents the Dark Prince. This is the Rothschild brother who benefits by working against America’s New Republic because it is in his monetary advantage to do so. This comes in many forms from benefiting from America’s entrepreneurs or foreign interests of rival market competition. For young Americans trying to build a nation it was like a wielded unseen two edge sword by a family of seasoned veteran capitalists who had the right worldly connections and societal status. Not all Americans were blind. The Scottish Gentry of old money as well as members of Washington’s Administration clearly saw the manipulation and were caught in the middle of the principles of the Grand Architect’s Design of a new societal construct and their poor country’s need for the support of these world elites. The Red Star would be the representation of the Rothchilds family member’s actions through the Red Shield of the Illuminati. 

The artisan design pays obeisance to the Rothchilds family for their in-direct monetary support for the Patriot cause during the American Revolution. In Gary’s view, the Scottish Gentry connection would be Lord Drummond using the Rothschild family as a false front in lending America money via by the Sinclair bank in Italy. It is a portion that is hard for me to research and prove, but is worth noting. The multi-layer five star design demonstrates a level of noted appreciation to each the powerful world’s players in an auspicious religious manor to the Rothschild Jewish religion.

Each one of the stars represents an appreciative tribute to the workings of their emissaries. This would include the Rothchilds-Red Shield members, illuminati constituency, and American Patriots who worked behind the scenes to change the societal construct into a working system ( New World Order) that would be free and able function from the Devine Right of Kings and social contracts of their governmental rule. The design of the button was an inconspicuous way the American Scottish Gentry who were in the era’s economic power were able to signal they were “keeping the door open” as a welcoming mat for the future financial support that was desperately needed in America’s post-revolution era. They understood the countries desperate need for monetary tools in banking and venture capital to build a solvent nation on the world’s stage.


The Rothchilds support the Patriots in the USA at the same time as they were provide funding for England and Germany.

“Rothchild-Red Shield Illuminati financing the war against the “King of England” To the trained eye, we are saying this war is fought behind the veil of normal diplomacy between 2 kings playing chess. The world looks at the chessboard itself, instead of behind the scenes. To control America’s resources from the earth’s mining and trees. As all perceived Gods use religion for kings they embed their symbols with high morality religious means.



* Rattlesnake Design Key

British Design: Resistance & Restoration of Charles I & II. Ancient European Alchemist Philosophy coinciding with Religion on man’s inherent nature of self serving weaknesses and how its effects on one another.

Scottish Design: Scottish Royal Culture and it’s tributes to ancient Greco-Roman symbolism. This can also be viewed as having an overlapping with British design pattern by way of Prince Edward Stuart through King James I of England via Merovingian King line to God /Jesus Christ.

America’s New Republic Design: Undertone of Scottish Royal Culture ushering in the New Age of Enlightenment and move away from the Old World Order of Devine Rights of Kings.

Celestial Star Pattern: Was used to denote the proper place in the heavens next to God. Masonry correlated it with man’s origins, and wealthy families used it as a Coat of Arms for their Flags on merchant ships. Also, during and post-revolution the star was correlated with the design shape of round eggs to denote the 13 states infancy.

The Rattlesnake Devouring its Own Tail Motif: Originating in Alchemy during the early Greco-Roman Egypt period went on to be used as a propaganda tool during Charles I & II reign of power to denote Resistance & Restitution. Later used during the the Jacobites in their British Civil War and continuation into the American Revolution.

The 13 Stripes or English Bar Pattern: The stripes represents the 13 states unified for the Patriot movement. The 13 English bar pattern represents the King and the 12 Sir Knights of the Order of the Garter. Religiously, the 13 represents Jesus and his 12 Apostles.




“Liberty, when it begins to take root, is a plant of rapid growth.” -G.W.

*************             *************             *************

*************      * Preface *       *************

          To help understand the concept of the 18th Century’s New Era of Enlightenment Ideals in America, I will offer a King’s analogy below to help people widen their historical lens in order provide the proper context of 18th Century Scottish Enlightenment. Understanding the dynamics of a societal revolution toward established societal constructs has many pieces. One has to account for 18th century contemporary views of social contract philosophies through European universities, while balancing the need of the people to actually take an active role in changing the established governing authority. The new societal construct of the “Grand Architects Design” which was ultimately offered by the founders allowed for the society transformation through the earlier on-going established movement of the Jacobite cause. Indirectly, by the educated class of gentry class there was a push to use the Jacobite tool box as an undercurrent pin and foundation for the Patriot Cause.

     Premeditated Jacobite pieces from Scotland and England with their own secret agendas like Scottish Artisan Robert Scot was able to take advantage of the Revolutionary movement as a deceptive front, and incorporate their on going agenda under the Patriot Cause. The Jacobite Cause has become so intertwined that one only has to separate out certain elements to make it the American Revolution instead of the Jacobite Revolution. Understanding how these Pro-Scottish Revolutionaries were able to help transform society through the new Ideals of Enlightenment, and then collate multi-culture nationalities by using common cultural and religious denominators will be reflected in America’s new federal insignia.

+By being able to infuse their artistry with established House of Stuart authority and divinity it provided the Federal government’s foundational framework for a world stage sovereignty; Also by providing Scottish Royal Culture Judaeo-Christian roots it provided a “timeless framework” to all nationalities of the Patriot movement, and then circled into the fruits of a New Republic by the representation of it’s citizens.

       The Grand Architects Design was implemented through of artistry of Robert Scot by him acting as an “International Guild President.” He would be the only one permissible by the Scottish family factions (Bank of Scotland / Italy & Pope) who they could entrust to carry forward their plans for the restoration of the House of Stuart in America. Robert Scot was one of only a handful of artisans in the 18th century who would have had the proper skill, authority, knowledge, and “permission” to use Scottish Royal family culture and Divinity (“E”) symbols within the art he produced. There would have been no-one else in the United States which would have had this kind of specialized training and knowledge with authority to use Scotland’s House of Stuart Royal family artistry symbols.

     Robert Scot’s Transformational Art Technique through the use of Allusion provided a way for the Revolutionaries to infuse the Patriot’s Cause with the proper winning tools on a Macro-Propaganda Scale, and then again to re-use later as a symbolic weave of symbolism in the foundation stones of the New Republic. Finding an origination point of a symbol such as the Phrygian Cap & Liberty Pole, Rattlesnake, Zoroastrian Phoenix / Eagle use in history is very, very complex. We can not just point to a first or second time use and then bring it forward to give a specific meaning and context to the use of the Revolutionaries scheme under the Grand Architect’s Design. Meaning, historical use of certain propaganda tools changed through history to fit the time and the context of each use. We will now use the term, Re-Purposed Propaganda when we denote the Snake, Phrygian Cap, Liberty Pole, the number “8”, “13”, Liberty Tree-Oak, and Rattlesnake-tail. Judaeo-Christianity symbols will include the all the Numeric Values of God, the “E” Divinity symbol of Charles I the Confessor, the Star of David, and the Christian Cross for George Washington Spy buttons. 

Strict Observance Freemasonry

 The Bonnie’s Jacobite
Allegiance Liberty Button


       A simple example of Re-Purposed Propaganda would be the Liberty Pole & Cap. The first recorded use of the Phrygian Cap would be by the Egyptian culture 3000 to 300 B.C. when the religious and mathematical scholars protested against the Pharaoh by wearing a Phrygian Cap. Semi-paralleling around 100-44B.C., the Roman Republic’s Senate transformed and integrated the Phrygian Cap into a political statement with a standing pole in their revolt against Caesars tyrannical rule. Then in a struggle for power between Hanover’s German decent George I of England and James II of Scotland it was re-introduced. Then in the mid 1740’s, (the incorporation of these two symbols 1st time) was re-used by Prince Edward Stuart of Scotland back at the Hanoverians of England. The Bonnie “Re-purposed” the propaganda but changed the use of the context for House of Stuart Jacobites against the British Royal families stranglehold on positions of power. The Bonnie Prince Charlie’s context would be the proper one to reflect where America borrowed this propaganda context of revolt. A relative of the House of Stuart John Morin Scott who was a founder of the Sons of Liberty and A Brigadier General for George Washington “Re-purposed” the propaganda statement again to the same oppressors and staked the 1st Phrygian Cap and Liberty Pole in the City of New York. This re-purposed propaganda of the Phrygian Cap & Pole transformed into the Liberty Cap & Pole which turned into a popular form of “expression” by the citizenry for 10 years. Disgruntled citizens with the Proclamation of 1763, the Sugar Act of 1764, and the Stamp Act 1765 would purposefully stake wooden Liberty Poles in the ground throughout the colonies as a political statement for more then 10 years. This originated with the British Stamp Act in 1765, and lasted throughout the American Revolution.


 1789, George Washington Inaugural Button
with Jacobite Tribute to the Bonnie Prince

     More importantly, the continual re-introduction of these re-purposed symbols in history would provide a constant contextual meaning of Liberty as the common denominator with little change in context use toward the oppressor. Meaning, it would be indifferent who used it in their struggles for independence the meaning stayed the same. From the 1st contemporary use by King George I around 1712 to 30 years later in the 1740’s with the Bonnie Prince Charlie, and then again in the 1770’s by the Patriots in America. We believe the Liberty Cap & Pole introduction in America was a sort of chess piece in a larger propaganda mosaic which actually laid the pathway for Robert Scot in the post-Revolutionary War times to infuse all Scottish Royal Culture and Sovereignty Symbols into America’s Federal insignia.  


*************             * Analogy *             *************

The Ancient Merovingian Kings of Enlightenment


The Kings of Europe who were told about enlightenment ways were not really very wise kings, good or bad, they ruled as they saw balance from their perception of things.

 The Kings of Europe who gained enlightenment through their own understanding of The Great Architect of the Universe, were very wise Kings. They were empowered by knowledge that scholars or others did not understand, and their names go through-out history to be remembered by all.

The Beginning of

*************  Scottish Enlightenment  *************

“How one places the limits of Scottish Enlightenment on our Founding Fathers seems to be a matter of personal choice by historians.”
– Robert J. Silverstein


We define the 18th century phenomenon we call, “Scottish Enlightenment,” as the contributions made by highly educated individuals in Scotland and England who’s social, economic, and political philosophies were reflected by the injustices caused by the House of Stuart’s family civil war. In this time frame the jurisprudence overflowed into all aspects of societal life through newspapers, literature, poetry, social clubs, and even tavern discussions amongst the commoners. The social sciences of these so-called, “Gentry Class of Jacobites” was not referred to by the dubbed name, “Scottish Enlightenment,” but important contributions were being made in a piecemeal effort to make-up a bigger picture to reach climatic flash-points such as the Battle of Culloden in 1746, and then across the Atlantic in America’s Revolution. This Scottish enlightenment is the social, political, and religious philosophy as the undercurrent behind the grass roots movement to what American Patriots would call and reference the “Spirit of 1776.”


“Experience must be our only guide. Reason may mislead us.”
John Dickinson of 
Delaware Aug 13, 1787.

In the summer of 1787, roughly 50 men assembled in Philadelphia out of roughly 3 million inhabitants in the 13 colonies. The cognitive, intellectual, educational, and conceptual level of the delegates was extraordinary high due to the level of 18th century education afforded to these men. With the common driving force being freedom of foreign domination, their focus became a singularity event to create a Federal umbrella capable of regulating affairs of the national interest while preserving the very different political entities of the individual states who’s economic interests they represented. With the tools provided by earlier philosophers like John Locke (Social contracts) which contributed to the new era of Scottish enlightenment, the delegates had the fortune of building upon this new school of thought to create a Federal Constitution. One that could be universally ratified by appealing to the delegates constituents regardless of their geography or nationality. This tool box carried crafted-pieces to work with multi-cultural and religious beliefs of diversity. As 18th century social clubs, Masonic lodges, taverns, newspapers, and poetry of the era acted as vehicles to carry-out the necessary propaganda mechanisms of Idealists like Dr. Benjamin Franklin, the Sons of Liberty, and all the extraordinary Patriots who were concerned with improving the conditions in which one could prosper socially and economically. All in the pursuit of happiness.

Colonists made a choice of allies prior to the American Revolution who’s final flash-points could date to the Proclamation of 1769, the Sugar Act of 1774, and the Stamp Act of 1765. The enemy of my enemy is my friend. I believe the choice to propagate the earlier Jacobite movement was easy for America’s Gentry who was looking to the future’s New Ideals and Schools of Thought captured under the umbrella of Scottish enlightenment. This undercurrent movement or new school of thought of enlightenment was propagated through the colonies Masonic lodges which weaved Scottish Royal Culture into the fabric. One could easily see the appeal when looking at the class stratification of the American Born Gentry.  The appeal of the Jacobite Cause and offering a new social contract and Ideals of the new Scottish Enlightenment would be an appealing avenue toward the change everyone wanted.


The Silverstein
Re-Purposed Snake Propaganda
From Aegyptia Anguis to the
American Revolutionary War 
Rattlesnake Buttons



Societies Moral Compass demands the political class to conform to religious, social, and racial disparity. Repeated history has shown that change comes from the rebellious attitudes of Prestigious Universities Scholars who had considerable sway amongst the Gentry class. The 18th Century Symbol of the Ouroboros-Rattlesnake in Scotland, England, Ireland, and then finally in America was to change the ideology of “Political Thought.” This was accomplished by reinventing social contracts of disparity which were unwittingly placed upon by established Royal Proclamations or Parliamentary Conformist Orders controlled by certain ruling families. We look at 18th century Scottish Enlightenment New Ideals as the crucial lining of the New Republic’s Grand Architect Design. The ultimate change in an evolutionary societal construct from a Royal Monarchy, Religious, or Parliamentary rule to a Self-Governing Republic which was ignited and fueled by“Re-purposed Propaganda” taken from ancient history and symbols which could appeal to all religions and multi-culture nationalities, and their ritualistic practices and values. 

The 18th Century Re-Purposed Phrygian Cap & Roman Type Standing Pole Propaganda War ultimately started with the German-English claimant to the throne King George I around 1712 to a distant House of  Stuart claimant to the throne James II.  In the early 1740’s, Prince Edward Stuart of Scotland re-purposed the Liberty Cap & Pole once again for his Jacobite supporters. By the 1760s, the Jacobite movement grew into a secretive political and social change movement that questioned English Hanoverian and Parliamentary social contracts and societal constructs. Social clubs became a vehicle in London and Scotland for revolutionary political thought by elected politicians, university scholars, and Landed Gentry. The ritualistic practices of these social clubs cultivated a revolutionary propaganda war using ancient symbology such as, the Ouroboros Snake, the Rattlesnake, the Phrygian Liberty Cap & Pole, the Liberty Tree, the Symbolic Revolutionary Numbers 8, 13, & 45, Judaeo-Christian Symbols, The Star of David, all the Numeric Values of God, the Divinity“E” Symbol, and the transformational Zoroastrian Fire Alter & Phoenix / Eagle used as the Great Seal of the United States. 


Benjamin Franklin

1754 Join or Die Cartoon Robert J. Silversteins georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O.jpg

1754 Benjamin Franklin Re-purpose Propaganda
 Originating Prior to 1696 France.


The Matrix 1750’s-1760’s:

The snake would be the 1st symbol of unification for the British Colonies in America.(1) With the outbreak of the French Indian War, Franklin recognized the disadvantage of the colonies pursuing their own separate military strategies, and tried to give a rational argument for the cohesive unification of the different colonies governments and assemblies. The fragmentation of political opinions and commitments in the face of a unified enemy led Franklin on a path of social propaganda by calling for an effectual measure for “The Common Defense and Security.” This wasn’t a creation of Franklins, but the bridge from an undercurrent movement over the years to the public eye of the common citizen to unite and take action toward. Ever since the 17th century, the British politicians and their official representatives realized that keeping the colonies divided kept them complacent and weak; if they were united their solidarity would lead to eventual independence. By using class stratification it allowed for the British officials to set a climate of socially accepted rules of proper society. This gave way to consequential terms like, “Treasonous” for rebellious attitudes against established British political and social policies. 

The 8 Segmented Snake should be viewed as the 1st of many re-purposed propaganda moves which Benjamin Franklin would undertake to transform the undercurrent movement by the landed gentry for social inequality and unification. Even though the snake cartoon was not re-printed in standard English newspapers or magazines, it appears to have been well circulated throughout the British colonies in New York and Boston newspapers.(2) This re-purposed cut-snake cartoon was a propaganda chess-piece move by Franklin to gain public support as a public rally cry for action. This would in-turn give him a desired public square momentum of debate prior to his trip on June 8th 1754 to the City of New York where he would give the gentry political class his “Albany Plan for American Unification.”  As with all propaganda moves there are many other variables which contribute to it success. Such as, the Virginia Gazette later reporting Colonel George Washingtons defeat at Fort Necessity two months after the political cartoon on July 19th 1754.


These British officials were considered colony overlords with considerable discretion in political, economic and social matters within their jurisdiction. Natural resources and productivity of arboriculture and agriculture goods within any of the colonies were seen as protected rights under British Sovereignty Laws, and the British-American colonists who toiled were expected to comply with jurisdictional laws unquestioningly. British class stratification along with colony officials deportment played crucial roles in keeping the natural born colonists in compliance, but also fueled a resentment which directly contributed to various flash-points of dissatisfaction and unrest which increasingly contributed to a grass-roots underground movements for social change. Benjamin Franklin being a master propagandist of his time was able to rudimentary speak to all classes of citizens by speaking to multi-cultural nationalities. Meaning, he probably chose the Snake symbol for several reasons. For Judaeo-Christians the Snake instantly recalls the meaning and morality lessons behind the devil in the Garden of Eden. This religious propaganda was already established within western culture and was frequently found as colonial primers for textbooks, children’s books, fireplace tiles, and even on iron plates for Pennsylvania German stoves.(3) By re-purposing the snake symbol, Franklin believed he could embody and maneuver the Christianity symbol of evil, and then re-facet it in a multi-direction toward English imperialist practices of governorship. What he did was re-purpose the snake symbol of eternity and unity and graft into the American culture. Three years prior he actually introduced the Rattlesnake as a precedent template to example human nature in his 1751 savage satire, “Rattlesnakes for Felons.” By cataloging crimes by exiled English criminals it helped lay the foundational framework for mobilizing public support and creating colonial unity for the better interest of the colonists. So, by 1754, it conjured-up the beginning roots of American patriotism while re-calling and promoting anti-English sentiments.


The Undercurrent Propaganda Behind The 8 Segmented Snake