Sir Robert Strange & Robert Scot
Concept Notes on American Propaganda:
We know that Robert Scot and his Philadelphia Artisans were involved in all sorts of commissioned projects. From federal insignias to state departments and military insignias. These new symbols would represent America and it’s Patriotic endeavor on the world’s stage. The important underlying point is to show how Robert Scot and his Philadelphia Artisans built a new foundation of American heraldry insignias from their own Scottish historical roots. I am presenting a cross-evidence case demonstrating the use of the Rattlesnake symbol in various militia flags and buttons. It is noted that the use of the Rattlesnake symbol was on countless items as a political message; but I would like to stick with the people who introduced it in their art as a statement. I believe Sir Robert Strange started the FIRST steel die with the Snake. I believe he combined the intent of the American colonists in their earlier use of the Rattlesnake with the Scottish Royal families religious use of the Snake from bible moral lessons. This combined usage gave the necessary “authority and heraldry” to the American Rattlesnake as a symbol. After the First one was made for William Augustus Washington, I believe that Robert Scot and his Philadelphia Artisans then made other Rattlesnake patterns to act as, “Propaganda Pieces” for the Jacobite Masonic Lodge members (Fig.A.1). These members are the only colonists during the American Revolution era which would recognize their own Scottish heraldry symbols. It is our conclusion that Robert Scot and his Philadelphia Artisans used the Rattlesnake symbol as a sort of logo for the patriot’s cause for independence. One might note the use of the Phrygian Cap on the Rattlesnake button. It is our belief that this symbol wasn’t taken from the Roman Senate who used it as a symbol of their freedom from Caesars tyrannical rule. This was taken from a later period in history around 1745, when the Bonnie Prince had leaflets printed as propaganda statements against the British’s dethronement of King James, and also the exclusion of families who supported the House of Stuart from key economic and status positions. After the Bonnie Prince use, the Phrygian Cap was then used for the first time some 30 years later in the City of New York. In the public square where colonists regularly met the Phrygian Cap and Liberty Pole was once again used as a propaganda statement against the British Empire’s government policies.
In figure A.1 we see an example of the Rattlesnake with the Phrygian Cap. We believe that Robert Scot and his Philadelphia Artisans combined multiple Scottish heraldry and religious symbols from ancient cultures with the indigenous American Rattlesnake. With Robert Scot’s background I can see the Pictish Snake History in relation to Scottish Heraldry, the Bonnie Prince’s use of the Phrygian Cap with the Liberty Pole to create a new Propaganda symbol for the Patriot’s Cause. There was some discrepancy in a time line for when the Rattlesnake symbol started to appear in art. The First True Rattlesnake button was introduced by Sir Robert Strange, but his steel die engraving wasn’t finished until his old student Robert Scot finished it in America 1777. This would also make this Rattlesnake button the 2nd patriot-related relic to show the Rattlesnake symbol during the time of the Revolution. We believe this button was made in the beginning of the American Revolution for General William Washington. One can mistakenly argue that Benjamin Franklin introduced the Rattlesnake in his “Join or Die” political cartoon drawing in his Pennsylvania Gazette on May 9, 1754. This would be incorrect. Benjamin Franklin was not using it as a symbol, but as an example of the British Aristocrats division of unity within the colonies. Benjamin Franklin’s snake was intended for the British Colonists to unite together against the French. Later in 1774, Paul Revere altered the cartoon for the Massachusetts Spy. Here again this had no Symbolic or Heraldry meaning. One should note, even though it reflects the American colonist sentiment of the time, this still is prior to the Revolution and not of period like the Rattlesnake buttons. We believe that the Rattlesnake symbol is the First of many later date symbols introduced into American historical objects. We believe Robert Scot and his Philadelphia Artisans would infuse their Scottish and religious heraldry in the disguise of American Patriotism until his death. So, when people say Americans are a mix of different cultures, well so is the Symbols that gave Birth to our Nation!
Figure A.1: Rattlesnake button Die Variations.
Photographs provided from left to right: Bill Henderson, Don Troiani, Dale Hawley.
American Militia Flags
1770’s or really the 1790’s ?
Presented below is our Concept Notes that i took as we studied the various state militia flags. We wanted to illustrate how Robert Scot and his Philadelphia Artisans continued to use the American Rattlesnake as a symbol for American Patriots who continued to serve in the militia units. I am not a flag historian, but I did note some New Conclusions that should bring the Flag historians back for another look using our research into the hidden symbols that were unraveled previously. Below I show a cross-reference of 3 Militia & 1 Masonic Flag that Robert Scot and Philadelphia engravers did.
Artillery Company of Newport, Rhode Island
1791 to 1793
There appears to be a mis-conception about the year this flag was first made and put into service. Historical records on flags indicate that this particular flag was used by the Artillery Company of the state of Rhode Island during the Revolutionary War from 1775 to 1776. We do NOT believe this to be historically accurate, and with the new evidence we found within the images, will be able to provide a conclusive argument in relation to the flag’s fabrication and service date. We will give evidence of who the artisans were, as well as provide an instrumental time line which would of allowed these artisans to create this flag. In the proceeding paragraphs below, we will list the flag makers by name, as well as show all the hidden tribute symbols which reflect Scottish Royal history.
The Artisans: Robert Scot, Joseph Wright, Francis Shallus, John Vallance, and Samuel Allardice. J. Thackera, and possibly other Artisans.
Symbol Representation: First, it is our conclusion that this is the only known state flag that depicts the letter “E” symbol in reference to the Order of St. John. We believe the intended meaning behind the letter symbol “E” originates from the early Latin symbol for God. We also know that the letter “E” was used as a symbol in association with the Order of Saint John. If we look back in history, we know that the original island of Rhodes was located northeast of Crete, southeast of Athens, and just off the Anatolian coast of Turkey. If we look back at the island’s history, we find that “Rhodes” was actually a nickname and was a reference for the “Island of the Knights.” Meaning that Rhodes was named after the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem. These were the knights who had once conquered the island back in 1309. So, with this piece of factual evidence, we can conclude that the Rhode Island flag gives tribute to the history associated with the Knights of Saint John, and also the Royal marriages between the Orders of Malta and the Templar Knights. We do note the fact that Robert Scot had placed the letter “E” in many of his other engraving works, but in this case we believe his intent was to honor and highlight his own past family marriage associations within the Orders; as well as give tribute to where the name Rhode island originates from. So, it would be a family marriage history along with the knight history of Saint John and the Order of Malta. Lastly, we can also tie-in the Newport Tower in association with the marriages of the Royal crusaders who were sovereign founders of the Knight’s Templar. They were also direct bloodlines of the Kings of Jerusalem, Merovingian Kings, Vikings, Carolingian Dynasties, the Pictish Celts, Dal Rita Royal Celts, and bloodlines to many Saints. So, in a nut shell, all these sovereign families were the actual bloodlines of the Holy Roman Emperors. This symbolism links the mysteries of the Sinclair history that the Newport tower historians, have over looked!
Another symbol that provides Royal family association is the Anchor. We know that this is a representation of both early Christianity with a Jesus reference, and also with the Admiralty of the High-Lord Sinclair. This symbols use can trace it’s roots back in history to it’s depiction in the Kirkwall Scroll. Lastly, we are going to talk about the banner ribbon which is inscribed with the motto, “In God We Hope.” This inscription can be directly attributed to the early Christian Church and it’s religious crusades. This catchphrase can represent the Rhodes of Malta history in relation to the naming of Rhode Island. ((((( The Scot and Sinclair families married the Knights of St. Johns Commanders daughters. This being Scot gr-gr-gr grandfather married Lord James Sandilands 1st Torphian and as the Commander of the Knights of St. John was placed in Queen Mary of Scots Royal Court in France before she went back to Scotland from France. Scots Gr-Gr Grandfather Sir John of Scot of Scotstarvet’s, 2nd wife father Lord Melville was Queen Mary of Scot’s, Royal Page. This is where the unity of the Knights of St. John links. Lord Sandilands was a member of the Royal House of the Sinclairs. The Lord Gordons families were married to them also, Gordons were part of the circle of engraver artists associated to Sir Robert Strange, Richard Cooper and Scot’s grandfathers as well.
* Please Enjoy this Rare Opportunity to see for the First Time in History the Flag’s Maker Marks.*
I did have to punch up the colour so you can see the Artisan’s Maker Marks a little easier.
Flag Images Courtesy of Rhode Island Historical Society 2015.
General Arthur St. Clair’s
2nd Regt. 2nd Brig. 5th Division
New York Militia
The General Arthur St. Clair……….
The Artisans: Robert Scot, Joseph Wright, Francis Shallus, John Vallance, and Samuel Allardice.
Symbol Representation: This information is in addition to the study of the St. Clair Flag link by Gary Gianotti on the home page. We found a design correlation between theFlag and the Samuel Griffith Pyramid Seal engraved by Scot and his Philadelphia Artisans. We noticed that within the feather design there was an identical cypher pattern as in the pyramid. The professor from the Stone Masons Mark Project provided verification that a United Guild symbol is found on the GW Peace Medals. A third cross-examination of artifacts? The embedded symbols can be taken from the Stone Masons Mark found at the Cathedrals of Dunked and Glasgow.
The most important find is the maker marks of Joseph Wright. First, we began our study of these symbols on the 1st Battalion Westmoreland, Pennsylvania rattlesnake flag. This helped us conclude that Robert Scot also used Joseph Wright when fabricating this flag. Knowing that Robert Scot used the Rattlesnake symbol for the patriots, this gave us the idea to re-check General Arthur Saint Clair’s flag. Well hats off for Gary Gianotti, he inverted the flag’s image, and we found the entire back of the Eagle’s neck showing the finest grouping of Joseph Wright’s maker marks. His “JJW” style helps us more accurately date the flag’s construction to before his death in 1793.
One thing is for certain, the plates used to engrave the symbols in this flag must have come with Robert Scot across the Atlantic Ocean. There are hundreds of symbols on these plates. To give the flag authority from history, they pressed these symbols into the fabric of this flag on purpose. Robert Scot again disguising Scottish heraldry within American Patriot symbols? Gary doesn’t believe that scholars will ever figure out all these pressed symbol references in the fabric, but maybe we can get some answers in our limited study. Tin my opinion, the engravings must be some kind of ancient human history that is told on a timeline. The symbols might represent events in history that give reference to Royal families. Who made the plates and when they were made is anybody guess. As in the Rattlesnake buttons, we see in the Eagle’s Wing and Ribbon the “ST” in reference to the snake and Tau, or Pictish Serpent Symbolism.
Flag Images Courtesy of Heritage Auctions, and The Horse Soldier.
Maker Mark Illustrations by G G.
Rattlesnake Flag of Colonel John Proctor’s
1st Battalion West Moreland County, Pennsylvania
Post Revolutionary War Flag
The Artisans: Robert Scot, Joseph Wright, Francis Shallus, John Vallance, and Samuel Allardice.
Symbol Representation: We believe with the evidence of who made the flag, as well as the tribute symbols shown, we can accurately re-date the fabrication and actual service years. We are also able to conclusively prove by maker’s marks that John Vallance painted certain sections of Westmoreland Rattlesnake flag. His participation further supports our flags new fabrication date because we know from historical records that he did not arrive in America from Scotland until 1791. This key piece of evidence alone would erase all past researcher’s conclusions that it was made and entered into service in 1775. Furthermore, it is common practice for artisan painters to reflect the number of states that entered into the union within depicted symbols. If one examines the snake’s tail closely, you would find fourteen rattles and not thirteen. This evidence would also move the fabrication date to 1791, with the union entrance of the state of Vermont. With these two facts, we believe conclusively that this flag was actually made and put into service in 1791-92.
Researchers should take special note and cross reference the “Snake’s Scales” between John Proctor’s 1st Battalion Flag of Westmoreland County flag and the Artillery Company of Newport, Rhode Island flag. We can clearly see Joseph Wright’s makers mark, “JJW” within the scales at several locations. Clearly, his artistic design style shows an identical match between the two flags. As with all four snake flags we studied, Robert Scot left his “S” maker’s mark within the snake’s eye. Lastly, it is our belief that past researchers overlooked the most important significance in providing heraldry and authority to the snake flags themselves. We are talking about the embossed images pressed into the flag’s fabric itself. In our study of all these snake flags, we found hundreds of embossed symbols which are a reflection of the ancient Scottish Royal family history and their association with 12th Century Cathedral Mason symbols. We believe without these subcutaneous pressed images the flag would not have the authority needed to be vested by the Scottish Royal families.
Flag Images Courtesy of G G.
Maker Mark Illustrations by Dale Hawley & G G.
Sir Robert Strange’s
Copper Money Plates
~ Scroll Art Work Evidence ~
Using Strange’s bronze engraved money plate we are going to tie-in a broad spectrum of American art that was created by Robert Scot and his Philadelphia Artisans. The point of this article is to show how Robert Scot used Sir Robert Strange’s signature Scrolling Art technique and then modified it over time for use in American Insignia designs. This is a broad spectrum of art projects that would be used as official federal and state motifs.
These bronze money plates were engraved by Sir Robert Strange for Scotland’s Bonnie Prince Charlie. The Prince had the plates made in order to pay the Clansmen of the Highlands who made up his Jacobite Army. Before the young Pretender sailed to Scotland and raised the Jacobite standard in Glenfinnan, he asked Sir Robert Strange to engrave several nominal Pence money plates so he could pay his Jacobite army who supported him. Since victory was uncertain in this campaign, the decision was made to only use the plates in the grace of victory or print monetary sums when needed (Possibly as an I.O.U). Sometime in 1745, when Prince Charlie was on the run from the British soldiers between Inverness and the moors of Culloden he tossed the money plates into a pond before fleeing to France.
The point of my Concept Notes is to examine Sir Robert Strange’s signature scrolling art work. This style of art was most likely used as an anti-counterfeit technique, but was combine with religious and Scottish heraldry to give it sovereignty. With this unique combine nature, the scrolling art can be viewed as an authoritative copyright to the House of Stuart, and a legal deterred for other artisans not to copy or use this scrolling artwork. (Since the Bonnie Prince was in the process of restoring the House of Stuart, one can conclude that this scrolling art work never became formally accepted and recognized as being copyright to the House of Stuart). So, any money printed off these plates was worthless unless the exiled Prince was able to regain the British throne hereby making it actual legal tender. The Bonnie must have had the foresight to pay his Jacobite Army and supporters immediately after certain military victories. By having Sir Robert Strange make these plates prior it enabled him to establish his authority immediately after his victory.
Since the Bonnie Prince lost the war at the Battle of Culloden in 1745, it most likely voided any predetermined copyright claim to the scrolling artwork by the House of Stuart. This allowed Sir Robert Strange’s student Robert Scot to use it 30 years later when he went to America to be an anti-counterfeit currency engraver for the southern colonies. Robert Scot used his teachers scrolling art work and then ultimately changed it over a period of time into his own personal signature Monogram Snake Art with a Beaded Cypher design. I personally call it the, “Transformational Worm & Snake Scrolling.” I haven’t figured out what the Beaded Cypher Number Pattern represents, but it could grant some kind of heraldry, authority, or represent the Scottish Royal family Culture somehow. I know Robert Scot used it in a number of engravings over his lifetime. From early American George Washington Inaugurals to later English King & Constitution Buttons. (Figure A.1: GWI 21 & Figure: A.2)
Another prime example would be the burial cannon of William Augustus Washington (Fig 4). Even though James Byers of Philadelphia made the cannon, it was Robert Scot who engraved the shield with the US Monogram. What makes this shield very special and lends an unknown (Secret) authority is that he combined his scrolling artwork with a Special Beaded Cypher Design Pattern. This rare beaded design is a representation of a secret cypher that is in relation to a number pattern.(((BEADS ARE FOUND GW BUTTON 21 T0 22))))) Obviously, this holds a special significance and meaning. We do know that Freemasons in that era used numbered patterns which held significance and meaning.
Figure 3: The Lawrence Washington Seal: Figure 4. William A. Washington’s Burial Cannon.
Both figures show Robert Scot’s Transformational Scrolling Artwork.
GWI 21 Federal Eagle W/ Scrolling Art Monogram
For all of my GWI button hobbyists, I saved the Best for last! This is actually my favorite part of this whole document. First, it allows me another irrefutable way aside from Robert Scot’s maker marks to divulge that he is histories unknown George Washington Inaugural button creator! Second, it allows me to example two ultra rare (Possibly one of a kind) GWI buttons as incontrovertible proof! Third, Dale & I own these specimens- how fitting is that!
As with the Special Revolutionary War burial cannon, Robert Scot actually added this secret “Reserved Cypher Stipple Design Pattern” in only two known George Washington Inaugural Buttons: GWI 21 & GWI 22! (Fig.5) What I can tell you briefly without moving off the scrolling artwork topic is that both of these GWI buttons are very unique, and have tribute references to Ancient Cultures, Various Religions, Scottish Royal Families & their history, and of course Masonry. We believe that Robert Scot would only engrave a button with a cypher pattern if it was intended for someone (people?) of special stature. These buttons are actually one-off variations of the originals and what Albert uses as book specimens. The GWI 22-B is the only button (other than the Lawrence Washington seal) to have pierced 3D snakes heads. There is a noted difference between the snake depictions in the seal and the GWI 22-B button. The Lawrence Washington Seal shows the snakes eating themselves within the monogram grooving. This depiction can make reference of society distracting itself by its own means. The George Washington Inaugural button GWI 22-B depicts the snakes eating other snakes. This might symbolize that the Scottish Jacobites achieved their goals against the British. Meaning, with the American Revolutionary War victory, the Jacobites controlled the United States business infrastructure and controlled the reigns of the limited state banking system. One can say this button symbolized a Scottish economic victory over the English Aristocrat families that exiled them years before. In GWI 22-B, one should note that the dotted pattern is not a design cypher, it is actually the bees hard at work around society. The Scottish Royal family is represented by the Honey Bee Hive in the phrygian cap.
We do acknowledge that this cypher pattern was later continued on relics intended for English aristocrats who supported King George III, i.e… “The King & Constitution” buttons (Fig.6)
Figures 5 & 6: Robert Scot’s Transformational Scrolling Snake/Worm Designs & Stipple Cypher Design Pattern.
Photographs are provided by Dale Hawley & Robert J Silverstein.
The Grand Lodge of Free & Acepted Masons
1793 – 1801/3
The design of this flag reflects work that was started early on in 1792 and then finished around
1795. Researchers should note the reflection of 17 Inanna / Ishtar eight pointed Stars for dating.
The Artisans: Robert Scot, Joseph Wright, Francis Shallus, John Vallance, and Samuel Allardice.
Symbol Representation: Unlike Robert Scot’s patriotic snake flags masked over Scottish Royalty history, this flag was made with the intent of illustrating the history of Scottish Masonry. It is our contention that this flag was actually started in 1793 by Joseph Write. Unfortunately, the flag went unfinished because of his untimely death. Because of symbolic evidence of 17 Ishtar / Inanna type starspreserved by Robert Scot after his premature death.
In the Grand Lodge flag we see seventeen stars which represent the initiation of the state of Ohio.
it was last flag he worked on and they preserved it for 7 years and then finished it in 1803.
The Grand Lodge Flag is rather unique that its the very first flag of the 18th century that can date the start of the construction and date the flags competition. Joseph Wrights makers marks are found on the flag, but the number of stars date the flag to the time of the admittance of the seventeenth Ohio, which became a state over a period from late 1801 until early 1803. Wright died in 1793, so the flag was begun then and then finished when the State was admitted into the union. Common sense tells me that this was the last of the flag that Wright worked on and it was highly prized being some of the last work of the young talented artist . Who lost his life from an outbreak of yellow fever in Philadelphia. The other unique feature is that Numismatist get to glimpse at the many hidden symbols and makers marks found. Scots makers mark is place on the exact location as where he place his mark on some of the early US Mints coins he made in 1775(identical is the bird to this flag). The birds dove like appearance is symbolic in representation of St. Columbia of Iona, who converted the Scottish Pictish people. The early coin maker of the Pine Tree shllings of Mass Bay, his shop was called the Dove!
In the Depiction below, Gary was able to Cross-Referance Robert Scot’s earlier work with transformational birds (Phoenix, Dove, and Eagle). One should take note that the Grand Lodge’s Flag is the closest representation of early American coins.
* Gary Gianotti’s PDF File Link: The Eagle & The Lodge *
The Meaning Behind The Three Arrows
Depicted & Engraved By Robert Scot
A 1778 Continental Currency Note
Engraved by Robert Scot
Printed by Hall & Sellers
In the 1778 Fifty Dollar note, collector’s should note how Robert Scot’s crossed Arrows depict the same type of nock, shaft, and tip that has resembles the ancient Royal Company of Archers associated with Scotland and England. Tribute? During the 17 & 18th Century, The three arrows symbol is a tribute to the Royal Company of Archers. There was a ceremonial yearly competition.
1789 George Washington Inaugural Button
Depicting the Eagle & (Scotland’s) Three Arrows
Eagle & Star
As with all of Robert’s Scot’s earlier engravings, we are again given positive proof in 1789, that he continued putting Scottish Tribute Symbols within all of his works. Here we see the Royal Company of Archers three arrows cloaked in American Patriotism. There seems to be some controversy here in our group for symbol representation in the Scottish tribute meaning.
Okay, Thank you for walking me through your reasoning, but I believe i get a turn now. I was hesitant to send you the wikkipdia definition without giving you my theory first. So, Please entertain theory as I walk you through my reasoning. The Royal Company of Archers were the lifeguards (Bodyguards) to the King of Scotland until he was deposed from the throne in 1688. When Robert Scot does his transformational-eagle on the button, he is showing 2 views. The Scottish view which is the restoration of the Scottish Royal family’s power in 1789, and symbolizing the Royal Company of Archers by the use of the three arrows. We know that all GW buttons have Scottish intent cloaked behind American patriotic symbols. Even though i enjoy your line of thinking, your CROSSING over the hidden Scottish view to the open American view. I look at them separate. So, if you take out the American equation, I believe you will find it becomes crystal clear, and left with the only thing it could logically be. I also do believe that you are in error with the American view of reference, I understand what you are saying, but I find your argument limited and again i am on a different path. As for GWI 14 single arrow, that is Robert Scot paying (actually (2)) tributes to his teacher and mentor Sir Robert Strange who was the the Lifeguard of the Bonnie Prince. I can walk you through that as well if need be. Your Obed, Servt.-Robert J. Silverstein