* 1792 – 1796 *
General Anthony Wayne’s American Legion
&
* 1798 – 1802 *
American Army Infantry Regiments

 

 

~ 1792 – 1798 ~
The New U.S. Army,
General Anthony Waynes Legionaires

 

     The U.S. Army was created by Congress on June 3, 1784 at the end of the American Revolutionary War. This new United States Army was to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The Continental Army was disbanded for several reasons, but for the most part there was a big distrust by the states, and our founding fathers for a government to have a large standing army. The state militia’s would assume the role of protecting states individual rights, as well as their social & economic interests. This new Legion would become America’s new Army with the exception of a sole regiment which would guard the new Western Frontier; and there was also a sole battery unit of a Federal Artillery which would be funded by Congress to guard the arsenal at West Point.

     The idea of a state based militia military for a country’s defense and protection was not really a practical idea. After a few years, there was civilian unrest with all the inadequacies of proper military training and professionalism that was demonstrated by the state’s militia. There was a complete lack military discipline, etiquette, and professionalism by all state militia soldiers; and with the continuing conflict with the Native American Indians, it was soon realized that a proper field trained standing Federal Army was necessary. President Washington’s answer was “The Legion of the United States.” The Legion was established with much controversy by an act of Congress in 1791.

     There were certain factors aside from the state’s lack of military professionalism that led-up to Congress’s final decision to establish a national standing Army. There was a general fear by the citizenry and understanding by President Washington that we could not rely upon foreign mercenary forces to be the defense of our nation. First, was the home-based fear from the problem with the American Native Indians. General Arthur St. Clair’s disastrous defeat at the Battle of the Wabash by Blue Jacket and Little Turtle’s tribal confederacy caused a fearful outcry for protection by the citizenry. General St. Clair’s forces were drawn principally from the various state’s militias. They were unorganized, unprofessional, and lacked the necessary unified training. This defeat really impressed upon President Washington and our other founding fathers that a states militia’s would not be adequate force for the nations defensive needs. Unfortunately, President Washington was up against a wall with state Congressman’s disapproval and trust for a national Army.

     George Washington had the foresight for a national Army from his past experience with undisciplined and inadequately trained state militia from the Revolutionary War. He understand all the national military inadequacies the country would face is a threat of foreign war or national protection. His only solution was to raise a professionally trained Army even against the unpopular support of congressional leaders and state representatives. At first this was not a welcomed idea, but after continual persistence, and the staunch persistent recommendations from the Secretary of War Henry Knox, it was decided to recruit and train a new legion of soldiers for the United States in 1791. President Washington appointed his old friend lieutenant Anthony Wayne to lead this new American national Army of Legionnaires.

      General Wayne decided upon a simple military structure of a Legion because of the monetary limitations for supplies, and the number of soldiers Congress would pay for. The Legion would be composed of four sub-legions, and each would be commanded by a Brigadier General. The sub-legions were going to be all self-contained units which would be composed of two battalions of infantry, a rifle battalion, a troop of dragoons, and a battery of artillery. A light infantry unit would strictly be used for domestic skirmishes against the Native American Indians. These Light Infantry soldiers were armed with Pennsylvania long rifles, and there function would be to screen for the heavy infantry units. So in a nut shell, were looking at a force that would combine Cavalry, Artillery, Light and Heavy Infantry, into one brigade sized force which would be divisible into separate stand-alone combined arms teams.

     In June of 1792, this new American Legion started to recruit and train in Fort Lafayette, which was located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The first two sub-legions were actually created from the 1st and 2nd regiments of the Continental Army, and the 3rd and 4th sub-legions were raised from new recruits. By November of 1792, the Legion moved to the first U.S. basic training facility in Legionville, PA. This new frontier fort was built on the orders of General Anthony Wayne on the banks of the Ohio River. General Wayne also was accredited for establishing various forts along the “line of march” to ensure the adequate re-supply for his soldiers. These forts were garrisoned with the newly trained legionnaires. It was their primary task to guard the entire frontier.

     The Legion’s resources were spread extremely thin for an such an enormous frontier. This scarcity to ever seeing troops led to a common mis-belief amongst the citizenry that the US Legion was officially disbanded in 1796, after General Wayne’s death. But, in fact, what happen was his second in command General James Wilkinson (who was a secret spy for the Spanish Government) had his own visions of a what a realistic Army structure needed to be effective on the American frontier. Meaning, he often drafted his own regulations and re-structured the Army into a more formidable system that he felt was necessary (He was also blamed for trying to undo everything General Wayne had created; including the whole Legion/ sub-legion structure) but General felt they had their own system for the changing times. The first notable thing Wilkinson did was to break apart the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Sub-Legions, and turned them into the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Regiments. There are other structural introductions, but this one should help give a basic foundation for button collectors to understand the early US Army button regiment designations. I have come to believe that understanding US Army Insignia and button patterns comes from what was issued between 1796, and the War of 1812.  

 

 

 

1792 US Army 23mm Pewter GI 24-A georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O1792 US Army 23mm Pewter GI 24-A georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R 

1792 The United States Army

Color: A Pewter Gray with Clay Red.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 23mm. Coat Size
Albert’s: GI 24-A:                      RV 35
Variation: Eagle with Upraised Wings / Long Thin Neck / Federal Shield with 5 Stars Inside the Field.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Condition,  A Strong High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: There appears to be two known patterns for this early 1792, Army button. The larger coat size button depicts 5 Arrows in the eagle’s right talon instead of three. This is contrary to most federal related insignia for two reasons. First, there should be 3 Arrows to represent the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Branches of government. Second, the Eagle’s head is incorrectly facing the arrows which indicates a preference for war. This could be a supportive statement for support of the French War in Europe. This is also contradictory to the United States Great Seal, and the U.S. official position for the country’s preference for peace. Next, the Federal Shield has 5 Stars and 5 Stripes instead of 13 Stars and Stripes to represent the states. This also does not reflect the 5th state to join the union (Connecticut in Jan 9th 1787). So, there was a conscious choice too use the number 5, but is unclear to me at this point. The smaller cuff pattern, the button correctly depicts 3 Arrows in the Eagle’s left talon, and the eagle’s head is correctly facing the Olive Branch for peace. There is also No Stars in the top portion of the federal shield, but this could simply be due to size. Collectors should also note it does contain 5 Stripes as the coat to signify something. The coat button depicts a Federal Type Eagle with Upraised Wings facing right with a with a Long Thin Neck. In this variant, the Eagle is facing right towards the arrows. In the eagle’s right talon is a small bundle of Five Arrows pointing upward towards the right. In it’s left talon is a short Olive Branch with 3 Petals. Over the eagle’s chest is a Federal Shield. There are 5 Stars that go horizontally across the top portion of the shield, and 5 Stripes that go vertically underneath. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field. Some collectors nickname this, “The Turkey Eagle” because of the eagle’s depiction. Collectors should obtain any specimen when becomes available.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a flat one-piece molded button with a loop shank. No back mark, but mold line present from casting.

The Jacob W. Collection.~
This was Found in the 1920’s when Workers Dug up A Walkway of an 18th Century Home.

Robert’s Notes: There was a 1960’s recasting in pewter from an original specimen. This reproduction can be identified by a “13” on the reverse. The shank is a wedge shank with a drilled hole (Imrie/Risley). Collectors should be ware, some unorthodox people file the “13” away and also the wedge shank down to fake a loop shank.

 

 

 

 

1792 The United States Army

Color: A Pewter Gray.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 13.61mm x 14.46mm.      Cuff Size
Albert’s: GI 24-Av: Unlisted Size: RV 100
Variation: Eagle with Upraised Wings / Short Stout Neck / Federal Stripe Shield without Stars Inside the Field.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Condition, An Exceptional Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: There appears to be two known patterns for this early 1792, Army button. The larger coat size button depicts 5 Arrows in the eagle’s right talon instead of three. This is contrary to most federal related insignia for two reasons. First, there should be 3 Arrows to represent the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Branches of government. Second, the Eagle’s head is incorrectly facing the arrows which indicates a preference for war. This could be a supportive statement for support of the French War in Europe. This is also contradictory to the United States Great Seal, and the U.S. official position for the country’s preference for peace. Next, the Federal Shield has 5 Stars and 5 Stripes instead of 13 Stars and Stripes to represent the states. This also does not reflect the 5th state to join the union (Connecticut in Jan 9th 1787). So, there was a conscious choice too use the number 5, but is unclear to me at this point. The smaller cuff pattern, the button correctly depicts 3 Arrows in the Eagle’s left talon, and the eagle’s head is correctly facing the Olive Branch for peace. There is also No Stars in the top portion of the federal shield, but this could simply be due to size. Collectors should also note it does contain 5 Stripes as the coat to signify something. The button depicts a Federal Type Eagle with Upraised Wings facing right with a Short Stout Neck. In the eagle’s left talon is a small bundle of Three Arrows pointing upward to the left. In the eagle’s right talon is a short Olive Branch with 3 Petals. Over the eagle’s chest is a Federal Shield without any Stars. There is an open plain field in the top portion, and 5 Vertical Stripes below. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field. Some collectors nickname this, “The Turkey Eagle” because of the Eagle design. Collectors should obtain any specimen that becomes available.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a flat one-piece molded button with a replaced omega loop shank. No back mark, but mold line present from casting.

Dug by Jim Baldwin at Fort Wilkinson, Milledgeville, Georgia.
The RJ Silverstein Collection.

 

 

 

1792-98 Army Pewter 14mm FT. Adams Miss. georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O1792-98 Army Pewter 14mm FT. Adams Miss. georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R 

1792-98 U.S. Army Wayne’s Legion

Color: A Pewter Grey.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 21mm. (14mm.Remaining) Coat Size
Albert’s: GI 25-A:                  RV 75
Variation: Eagle Facing Right / Upraised Wings / Federal Striped Shield / Thirteen Five Pointed Stars / Short & Stout.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Fair Planchet Condition, A Fair High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: There are four known die variants in this series. Depending on which die variant, they can have a differences in the length and fullness of the eagle’s neck, and also how many stars are in the field. One die variant the olive branch and arrows switch respective sides. This button depicts an Eagle Facing Right with Upraised Wings. Over the eagle’s chest is a Federal Striped Shield. In the eagle’s left talon is a small bundle of three arrows pointing upwards. In it’s right talon is a short stem olive branch with petals. This die variant is suppose to depict Thirteen Five-pointed Stars surrounding the eagle in the field. The eagle’s neck in this variant appears to be Short and Stout. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field. Because of the Pewter. collectors find these dug buttons hard to obtain intact without edge loss. Un-dug specimens are the extreme rarity.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a one-piece molded button with a loop shank. The shank is unfortunately missing. No back mark, but mold line present from casting.

The RJ Silverstein Collection.~
Excavated at Fort Adams, Mississippi.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1792-98 Army 23mm 15-pointed stars Alberts GI25.C georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O11792-98 Army 23mm 15-pointed stars Alberts GI25.C georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R 

1792-98 U.S. Army Wayne’s Legion

Color: A Dark Forest Green With Grey Undertones.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 23mm (17mm remaining). Coat Size
Albert’s: GI 25-C:                        RV 75
Variation: Eagle With Upraised Wings / Small Bundle of Three Arrows / Short Stem Olive Branch / 16 Five Point Stars.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Fair Planchet Condition, Fair/ A Good High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: There are four known die variants in this series. Depending on which die variant, they can show differences in the length and fullness of the eagle’s neck, and also how many stars are in the field. The button’s pattern depicts an Eagle with Upraised Wings facing right. Over the eagle’s chest is a crude style Federal Striped Shield. In the eagle’s left talon is a Small Bundle of Three Arrows pointing upwards. In the eagle’s right talon is a Short Stem Olive Branch with olives and petals. The die variant depicts Sixteen Five-Point Stars surrounding the eagle in the field. The eagle’s neck appears to be Longer & Fuller. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with no raised edge border.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a flat one-piece molded button with a loop shank. The shank is original and intact, but crushed inwards. No back mark or mold line present. Cracks in the pewter are evident.

The RJ Silverstein Collection.~

 

 

 

 

t Site near Ft. Wilkinson on the Oconee River Milledgeville, Georgia RJ Silverstein's georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com Ot Site near Ft. Wilkinson on the Oconee River Milledgeville, Georgia RJ Silverstein's georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R

1792-98 U.S. Army Wayne’s Legion

Color: A Light Silvery Gray.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 22.37mm. Coat Size
Albert’s: GI 25-C:                             RV 75
Variation: Eagle With Upraised Wings / Small Bundle of Three Arrows / Short Stem Olive Branch / 16 Five Point Stars.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Good Planchet Condition, A Strong High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: Here is something pretty neat, George Washington was our Commander and Chief when this button was used. There are four known die variants in this series. Depending on which die variant, they can show differences in the length and fullness of the eagle’s neck, and also how many stars are in the field. The button’s pattern depicts an Eagle with Upraised Wings facing right. Over the eagle’s chest is a crude style Federal Striped Shield. In the eagle’s left talon is a Small Bundle of Three Arrows pointing upwards. In the eagle’s right talon is a Short Stem Olive Branch with olives and petals. This die variant depicts Sixteen Five-Point Stars surrounding the eagle in the field. The eagle’s neck appears to be Longer & Fuller. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with no raised edge border. Collectors find these dug buttons hard to find without edge loss. Buttons with missing shanks appear to be more common.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a flat one-piece button with a loop shank. The shank is unfortunately missing. No back mark, just a mold line.

The RJ. Silverstein Collection.~
Dug by J.B. at an encampment site on the Oconee River near Fort Wilkinson, Georgia.

 

 

 

 

 1792-1798 US Army Infantry 1-piece Pewter 15mm GI 25-Bv 15-5 Pointed Stars Dug N.E. of Macon GA, An Encampment Site near Ft. Wilkinson on the Oconee River Milledgeville, Georgia By J.B. RJ Silverstein's Georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O1792-1798 US Army Infantry 1-piece Pewter 15mm GI 25-Bv 15-5 Pointed Stars Dug N.E. of Macon GA, An Encampment Site near Ft. Wilkinson on the Oconee River Milledgeville, Georgia By J.B. RJ Silverstein's Georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R
1792-98 U.S. Army Wayne’s Legion

Color: A Dark Pewter Grey with Greenish Brown Specks.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 13.84mm. Cuff Size
Albert’s: GI 25-Cv:                            RV 75
Variation: Eagle With Upraised Wings Facing Right / 5 Five Pointed Stars / Federal Striped Shield / Short & Stout Neck.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Condition, A Strong High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: There are three known die variants for the smaller cuff buttons. Collectors often find it difficult to associate the cuff with the proper coat variant because of the limited depiction of stars. Using the size of the eagle’s neck & head along with the position of the few stars directly above the head can be very helpful in determination of the proper variant. This button’s pattern depicts an Eagle with Upraised Wings Facing Right. Over the eagle’s chest is a crude style Federal Striped Shield. In the eagle’s left talon is a small bundle of three arrows pointing upward. In it’s right talon is a short stem olive branch with olives and petals. Since the cuff size is limited in space, the button only depicts 5 Five-Pointed Stars in the field above the eagle’s head. The eagle’s neck in this die variant is Short & Stout. Early military button collectors find Wayne’s Legion pewter buttons hard to obtain intact without edge loss. Un-dug specimens are the extreme rarity.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a flat one-piece molded button with a loop shank. The shank is original, straight, and intact. No back mark, but mold line present from casting.

The RJ. Silverstein Collection.~
Dug in Milledgeville, Georgia by J.B. at an encampment site on the Oconee River near Fort Wilkinson.

 

* Robert’s Notes: The way to tell which cuff variation (Av,Bv,Cv) is to examine how the stars are depicted above the eagle’s head, and also the thickness and length of the neck.

 

 

 

 

1792-98 Waynes Legion GI 25-D georgewashngtoninauguralbuttons.com1792-98 Waynes Legion GI 25-D georgewashngtoninauguralbuttons.com r 

1792-98 United States Army Wayne’s Legion

Color: Desert Clay.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 23mm.  Coat Size
Albert’s: GI 25-D: RV 75
Variation: Upraised Wings / 16 Five Pointed Stars / Arrows in Right Talon.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Condition, A Strong High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This die variant differs from the other three because the arrows and olive branch switch respective sides. The button depicts a spread Eagle Facing Right with Upraised Wings. In the eagle’s right talon is the small bundle of arrows, and in the eagle’s left claw is Short Olive Branch with Petals. This die variant has Sixteen Five-Pointed Stars surrounding the eagle in the field above. The eagle’s neck in this die variant appears to be Longer & Fuller. There are four die known die variants for this pattern. Depending on which die variant, they can show a difference in the length and fullness of the eagle’s neck, and also how many stars are in the field above. There is no smaller cuff button known to be associated with this die pattern.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a flat molded one-piece button with a loop shank. The shank is original, straight, and intact. No back mark.

The RJ. Silverstein Collection.~

Robert’s notes on the 1792-98 Wayne’s Legion Series. I believe there was a lot more molds created or die variants made then the 4 Albert references. I have come across specimens with subtle differences in the eagle’s depicted. Wing spread along with symmetry of spacing vary in specimens known. Could it be possible there were some slightly larger buttons made? Could one of the molds had 17 stars to fill up the empty space? The only meaningful symbolism I know is when 13 Stars were depicted to represent the 13 original colonies or states, or 15 Stars for the number of states when George Washington started his second administration in 1792; which happens to be when these buttons were fabricated!!

Robert, not sure if my button is a 16 or 17 Star. If I count the spacing between the stars then 17. Hard to tell with the pewter disintegrating. Albert doesn’t have a 17 Star count, but then not to say they weren’t made. I believe your assessment is correct, there were probably more variants made not cataloged. -J.B.

 

 

 

 

 

 

~ United States Federal Infantry Patterns from 1798 to 1802 ~

 

1798-1802 U.S. Infantry 12th Regiment 15.65mm. Cast Pewter VA. Alberts GI 28-R12v PD $100. 06-29-13 O

1798-1802 U.S. Infantry, 12th Regiment

 

 

 

     In 1798, our second President John Adams was the one responsible for building up the Army and Navy because of an undeclared naval war with France. There were several diplomatic, and international commerce trading problems that attributed to Adam’s decision to lobby Congress for a larger more equipped Army. First was America’s neutrality stands in the war between Britain and post-revolution France. Second, after 1794, America was unwilling to continue to pay it’s war debt to France on the grounds that the debt was owed to the French Crown, and not the new Republic. Third, the United States also passed a trade deal with Great Britain which helped resolve several old contentions between the US and England since the American Revolution. This was known as the Jay Treaty. All these points infuriated France. It’s citizens felt that since it helped America gain it’s own freedom earlier, and was one of it’s first allies since the treat of Alliance in 1778, America owed a debt to France. In the face of this rejection, and political circumstances, French privateers started seizing American Ships trading with Britain. President Adams understood America’s political climate and willingness to enter into a foreign conflict. He also realized that the Federal Government lacked the resources to make a military commitment of this magnitude. There was also the hard cold fact that the U.S. Army lacked the numbers, discipline, and proper training to go to war. When he assumed the role as the President, there was only four regiments of infantry, and a very meager operating budget from Congress. At this time, most states used, and supplied their own militia units. Unfortunately, these units lacked the proper discipline, experience, and training against larger well trained foreign armies. Plus, there was also the underlying notion that American citizens were unwilling to leave their homes to fight in a foreign war.
     He knew that President Washington had foreseen foreign problems, and America needed it’s own Army so it would not be reliant on foreign mercenaries for it’s protection. With some political support, Congress granted Washington it’s legions. This was the strength base that Adams inherited when he entered office. As with all smart politicians, President Adams used his limited political power to take what initiative he could. He was able to augment the U.S. Army with an additional 12 Infantry Regiments to make to total of 16 Regiments. Also there wasn’t a large revenue base the federal government could draw from to supply it’s new troops. So fancy uniforms, and quality metal buttons wasn’t high on the necessity priority list. Inexpensive pewter was used for Wayne’s legion uniform buttons, and this was already known by the decision makers of supplies to be an inexpensive alternative to brass or copper. So most likely, Congress awarded contracts out to the cheapest supplier, instead of quality the of construction and workmanship.
     There is some un-substantiated information that these early infantry regiments were supplied some pewter buttons with their uniforms as early as 1798, but these could have been left old stock that wasn’t used for the earlier 4 infantry regiments, or possibly Wayne’s Legion pewter buttons. We do have definitive records from the War Department that show in 1800, Robert Martin of Philadelphia made and delivered to the Purveyor of Public Supplies, numbered Pewter buttons for the first 16 Infantry Regiments. These were simple one-piece pewter buttons with an Arabic number in the center, and the country’s name, “United States” circling the border in large capital letters. There was no fancy manufacturer identification back mark on these buttons. We also know through excavation of early encampments, that field molds were used by enlisted soldiers to replace buttons if necessary. They were able to melt down Musket Balls or other non ferries metals to cast 6 or more buttons in a scissor like mold. These molds were easy to use, and easily carried along with them on there journeys. These field buttons were also simple one-piece buttons that included the reverse shank as part of the cast. The molds themselves carried no manufacturer identification for the creation of the molds, and the buttons produced usually showed mold lines on the reverse from the scissor like molds.

Robert’s Notes: In 1798-1802, the Regimental Infantry buttons were ordered in two sizes, the large coats size 19 to 20mm, and a vest/cuff size of 15 to 16mm.

 

 

 

 

1798-1802 1st Infantry Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O1798-1802 1st Infantry Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R

1798-1802 1st Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: A Flat Grey, & Hints of Red.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 20mm. Coat Button
Albert’s: GI 28 R1:            RV 35
Variation: 1st regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Condition, An Exceptional High-Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This button’s pattern depicts a large number “1” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a mold poured one-piece button with a loop shank. The Shank is crushed and broken open. No back mark. Thin mold line is present.

The RJ.Silverstein Collection.~

 

 

 

 


 

1798-1802 2nd Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: Pewter Grey with A Blue Undertone.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 20mm.  Coat Button
Albert’s: GI 28 R2 :             RV 35
Variation: No Star/Raised Rim
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Good Planchet Condition, A Good High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: The 2nd Regiment has two known die variants. This button’s pattern depicts a number, “2” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a mold poured one-piece button with a loop shank. The Shank is professionally restored, otherwise straight, and intact. No back mark.

The RJ. Silverstein Collection.~

 

 

 

 

 

 1798-1802 2nd Infantry Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O 1798-1802 2nd Infantry Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R 

1798-1802 2nd Regt. U.S. Infantry (Star Pattern).

Color: A Dark Greenish-Grey.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 20mm.  Coat Button
Albert’s: GI 28 R2C:              RV 35
Variation: Five Point Star/ No Raised Edge Rim.
Present Condition: A Non Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Condition, Strong High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This would be the 2nd known die variant. This button’s pattern depicts a number, “2” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED * STATES * ” circling around the edge in capital letters. This pattern has Two Five Pointed Stars in between the country’s name. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a no edge border. This is the only button known in the series of 1798-1802 to use a star as part of the pattern.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a mold poured one-piece button with a loop shank. The Shank is professionally restored, and straight. No back mark. Thin mold line is present.

The RJ. Silverstein Collection.~

 

 

 

 

1798-1802 2nd Regiment Infantry 15mm Cast Pewter rj silverstein's georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O1798-1802 2nd Regiment Infantry 15mm Cast Pewter rj silverstein's georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R 

1798-1802 2nd Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: A Charcoal Ash Grey.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 16mm.  Cuff Button
Albert’s: GI 28 R2:             RV 20
Variation: 2nd Regt./Plain Edge.
Present Condition: A Non Excavated Specimen, Exceptional Planchet Condition, An Exceptional High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This is the smaller 2nd Regiment vest button. Similar to the first die variant, this button has a number, “2” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a mold poured one-piece button with a loop shank. The Shank is original, straight, and intact. No back mark. Thin mold line is present.

The RJ Silverstein Collection.~

 

 

 

1798-1802 U.S. Infantry 3rd Regiment 15mm Cuff Size Cast Pewter GI 28 R3v Orig Shank rj silverstein's georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O11798-1802 U.S. Infantry 3rd Regiment 15mm Cuff Size Cast Pewter GI 28 R3v Orig Shank rj silverstein's georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R1 

1798-1802 3rd Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: A Mud Brown .
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 20.54mm. Coat Size
Albert’s: GI 28 R3:           RV 20
Variation: 3rd Regt. / Raised Edge.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Good Planchet Condition, A Strong High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This is the larger 3rd Regiment coat button. This button depicts a large Arabic number, “3” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a One-Piece Casting for the Reverse Shank. The Shank is unfortunately missing. No back mark. Mold line is barely visible.

The Isabela Collection.~
Excavated near Lake George, New York.

 

 

 

1798-1802 U.S. Infantry 3rd Regiment 20mm Coat Size Cast Pewter GI 28 R3 No Shank rj silverstein's georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O1798-1802 U.S. Infantry 3rd Regiment 20mm Coat Size Cast Pewter GI 28 R3 No Shank rj silverstein's georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R

1798-1802 3rd Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: A Charcoal Mud Brown .
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 15.89mm. Cuff Size
Albert’s: GI 28 R3v:                RV 20
Variation: 3rd Regt. / Raised Edge.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Good Planchet Condition, A Strong High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This is the smaller 3rd Regiment cuff button. This button depicts a small Arabic number, “3” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a mold poured one-piece button with a loop shank. The Shank is original, straight, and intact.

The RJ Silverstein Collection.~
Excavated near Lake George, New York.

 

 

 

 

1798-1802 4th Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O1798-1802 4th Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R

1798-1802 4th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: An Ochre of Brown, Green and Red.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 21mm.  Coat Size
Albert’s: GI 28 R4:             RV 35
Variation: 4th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Condition, A Strong High Relief Pattern.
Isabela’s Notes: This button’s pattern depicts a large number “4” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a mold poured one-piece button with a loop shank. The Shank is original, straight, and intact. No back mark. Thin mold line is present.

The RJ. Silverstein Collection.~

 

 

 

 

1798-1802 4th Infantry Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O1798-1802 4th Infantry Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R

1798-1802 4th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: A Pewter Brown.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 15.5mm  Cuff Size
Albert’s: GI 28 R4v:             RV 20
Variation: 4th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Condition, A Good High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This is the smaller 4th Regiment vest button. Similar to the first die variant, this button has a number, “4” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a mold poured one-piece button with a loop shank. The Shank is original, straight, and intact. No back mark. Thin mold line is present.

The RJ. Silverstein Collection.~

 

 

 

1798-1802 5th Infantry Regiment 20mm-RJ-Silverstein-georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O1798-1802 5th Infantry Regiment 20mm RJ-Silverstein-georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com r

1798-1802 5th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: An Ochre of Brown, Green and Red.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 20mm.  Coat Size
Albert’s: GI 28 R5:             RV 35
Variation: 5th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Condition, A Strong High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This button’s pattern depicts a large number “5” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a mold poured one-piece button with a loop shank. The Shank is original, straight, and intact. No back mark. Thin mold line is present.

The Jacob W. Collection.~
Found Along the Ohio river in Sothern Illinois.

 

 

 

 

 1798-1802 5th Infantry Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O1798-1802 5th Infantry Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R

 

1798-1802 5th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: A Charcoal With Hints of Grey.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 15mm.  Cuff Size
Albert’s: GI 28 R5v:            RV 20
Variation: 5th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Fair Planchet Condition, A Fair High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This cuff button’s pattern depicts a large number “5” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a mold poured one-piece button with a loop shank. The Shank is original, straight, and intact. No back mark. Thin mold line is present.

The RJ Silverstein Collection.~

 

 

 

 

1798-1802 6th Infantry Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O1798-1802 6th Infantry Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R

1798-1802 6th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: An Ochre of Red and Brown Shades.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 20.5mm  Coat Size
Albert’s: GI 28 R6:           RV 35
Variation: 6th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Condition, A Strong High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This button’s pattern depicts a large number “6” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a mold poured one-piece button with a loop shank. The Shank is original, straight, and intact. No back mark. Mold line is present.

The Isabela Collection.~
Excavated in a Creek Bed near Fort Adams Mississippi.

 

 

 

 

1798-1802 U.S. Infantry 6th Regiment 15.49mm. Cast Pewter Alberts GI 28 R6v Orig Shank dug at Lake George NY RJ SILVERSTEIN'S GEORGEWASHINGTONINAUGURALBUTTONS.COM O11798-1802 U.S. Infantry 6th Regiment 15.49mm. Cast Pewter Alberts GI 28 R6v Orig Shank dug at Lake George NY RJ SILVERSTEIN'S GEORGEWASHINGTONINAUGURALBUTTONS.COM R

1798-1802 6th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: An Algae Green with A Charcoal Background.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 15.49mm  Cuff Size
Albert’s: GI 28 R6v:           RV 35
Variation: 6th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Good Planchet Condition, A Strong High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This button’s pattern depicts a large number “6” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a plain edge border. Cuff specimens for the 6th Regt. are a rarity.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a mold poured one-piece button with a loop shank. The Shank is original, straight, and intact. No back mark or mold line present.

The RJ Silverstein Collection.~
Dug at Lake George, New York.

Robert’s Notes: An dug specimen was found of this smaller 15mm. vest size (6th Regt) that was made in Sheffield Silver.

 

 

 

1798-1802 7th Infantry Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O1798-1802 7th Infantry Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R

1798-1802 7th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: A Dark Gray with Red Encrustations.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 20.5mm.  Coat Size
Albert’s: GI 28 R7:            RV 35
Variation: 7th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Condition, A Strong High Relief Pattern.
Isabela’s Notes: This button’s pattern depicts a large number “7” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a mould poured one-piece button with a loop shank.. The boss is present, but the shank is missing. No back mark. Mold line is present.

The Isabela Collection.~
Excavated in a Creek Bed near Fort Adams, Mississippi together with several 5th, 6th, & 12th Regt. buttons.

 

 

 

 

 

1798-1802 U.S. Infantry 7th Regiment 15mm. Cast Pewter Dug FT. Adams, Miss. Alberts GI 28-R7v PD $85. 04-09-131798-1802 U.S. Infantry 7th Regiment 15mm. Cast Pewter Dug FT. Adams, Miss. Alberts GI 28-R7v PD $85. 04-09-13R2

1798-1802 7th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: A Rustic Brown.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 15mm. Cuff Size
Albert’s: GI 28 R7v:            RV 35
Variation: 7th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Example, Fair Planchet Condition, Fair High Relief Pattern.
Isabela’s Notes: This button’s pattern depicts a large number “7” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a One-Piece Casting for the Reverse Shank. The boss is present, but the shank is missing. No back mark. No mold line is present.

The Isabela Collection.~
Excavated in a Creek Bed near Fort Adams, Mississippi together with several 5th, 6th, & 12th Regt. buttons.

 

 

 

 

1798-1802 U.S. Infantry 8th Regiment 15.56mm. Cast Pewter Dug Winchester, VA. Alberts GI 28-R8V RJ SILVERSTEIN'S GEORGEWASHINGTONINAUGURALBUTTONS.COM O11798-1802 U.S. Infantry 8th Regiment 15.56mm. Cast Pewter Dug Winchester, VA. Alberts GI 28-R8V RJ SILVERSTEIN'S GEORGEWASHINGTONINAUGURALBUTTONS.COM R2

1798-1802 8th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: An ocher of Oranges & Browns with Pewter Gray Undertones Showing Through.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 15.56mm. Cuff Size
Albert’s: GI 28 R8v:            RV 35
Variation: 8th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Condition, A Good High Relief Pattern.
Isabela’s Notes: This button’s pattern depicts a large number “8” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border. The higher numbers are unusually hard to obtain for collectors.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a One-Piece Casting for the Reverse Shank. The shank is original and intact, but slightly bent.

The RJ. Silverstein Collection.~
Dug by Mike Bruce in 1997 in a known Encampment in Winchester, Va
.

 

 

 

 

United States 9th Infantry Regiment Coat Button 1798-1808

The 9th Infantry Regiment is one on the first units authorized in the United States Army. It first appeared as a result of the Act of 16 July 1798, that authorized twelve additional regiments of infantry, in January 1799. Josiah Carville Hall, of Maryland, was its Lieutenant Colonel. All of the officers were appointed from Maryland, and the regiment was recruited in that State. However it was disbanded 15 June 1800. It appeared again serving in the War of 1812, it was again organized in March 1812, with Simon Learned, of Massachusetts, as colonel. The regiment was raised in Massachusetts, and took part in the War on the northern border, being present at the Battle of Lundy’s Lane, and other actions in that area. Following the war in the reorganization of the army, this regiment was again disbanded.

 

 

 

1798-1802 U.S. Infantry 9th Regiment 20.14mm. Cast Pewter VA. Alberts GI 28-R9 PD $42. 06-29-13 O1798-1802 U.S. Infantry 9th Regiment 20.14mm. Cast Pewter VA. Alberts GI 28-R9 PD $42. 06-29-13 R

1798-1802 9th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: Steel Blue.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 20.14 Coat Size
Albert’s: GI 28 R9: RV 35
Variation: 9th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Fair Planchet Condition, A Fair High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This button’s pattern depicts a large number “9” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border. The higher numbers are unusually hard to obtain for collectors.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a One-Piece Casting for the Reverse Shank. The shank is unfortunately broken off.

The RJ. Silverstein Collection.~

 

 

 

1792-1802 U.S. Infantry 9th Regiment Georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com B1792-1802 U.S. Infantry 9th Regiment 00.mm Gilt Brass 11-10-14 Gift R1

1792-1802 9th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: Dirt Brown with Pewter Undertones Showing Through.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Gilt Brass.
Size: 20.14 Coat Size
Albert’s: GI 28 R9: RV 50
Variation: 9th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Casting, A Good High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This button’s pattern depicts a large number “9” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border. The higher numbers are unusually hard to obtain for collectors.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a One-Piece Casting for the Reverse Shank. The shank is original and intact, but slightly bent.

The RJ. Silverstein Collection.~
Dug by Ken Lembo alongside the Manalapan River, New Jersey.

 

 

 

 

1796-1802 10th Infantry 20mm Pewter Dug in South Miss. georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O1796-1802 10th Infantry 20mm Pewter georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R1

1798-1802 10th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: An Light Orangish-Clay Brown.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 20mm. Coat Size
Albert’s: GI 28 R10:         RV 35
Variation: 10th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Condition, A Strong High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This button’s pattern depicts a large number “10” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border. The higher regimental numbers are much harder to find.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a One-Piece Casting for the Reverse Shank. The shank is original and intact, but crushed inward. No back mark. Thin mold line is shown.

The Dan Patterson Collection.~
Dan dug in 1998 in an early Military Camp in South Mississippi.

 

 

 

1798-1802 10th Infantry Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O1798-1802 10th Infantry Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R 

1798-1802 10th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: A Silvery Grey.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 18mm remaining. (20mm) Coat Size
Albert’s: GI 28 R10:         RV 35
Variation: 10th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Fair Planchet Condition, A Fair High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This button’s pattern depicts a large number “10” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border. The higher regimental numbers are much harder to find.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a One-Piece Casting for the Reverse Shank. Professionally re-shanked and is straight and intact. No back mark. Thin mold line is Present.

The RJ. Silverstein Collection.~

 

 

 

 

1798-1802 U.S. Infantry 12th Regiment 15.65mm. Cast Pewter VA. Alberts GI 28-R12v PD $100. 06-29-13 O1798-1802 U.S. Infantry 12th Regiment 15.65mm. Cast Pewter VA. Alberts GI 28-R12v PD $100. 06-29-13 R

1798-1802 12th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: A Silvery Grey.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 15.65mm. Cuff Cize
Albert’s: GI 28 R12v: RV 20
Variation: 12th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Condition, A Strong High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This button’s pattern depicts a large number “12” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border. The higher regimental numbers are much harder to find.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a One-Piece Casting for the Reverse Shank. The shank is original straight, straight and intact. No back mark. Thin mold line is present.

The RJ. Silverstein Collection.~

 

 

1798-1802 12th-Infantry-Regiment-RJ-Silverstein-georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O

1798-1802 12th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: A Clay Orange.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 15mm.  Cuff Cize
Albert’s: GI 28 R12v:            RV 20
Variation: 12th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Exceptional Planchet Condition, An Exceptional High Relief Pattern.
Isabela’s Notes: This button’s pattern depicts a large number “12” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border. The higher regimental numbers are much harder to find.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a One-Piece Casting for the Reverse Shank. Professionally re-shanked and is straight. No back mark. No mold line is seen.

 

 

 

1798-1802 14th Infantry Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O1798-1802 14th Infantry Regiment georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R 

1798-1802 14th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: An Earthy Grey.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 15mm.  Cuff Size
Albert’s: GI 286 R14:        RV 20
Variation: 14th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Condition, A Strong High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This button’s pattern depicts a large number “14” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a thin raised edge border. The higher regimental numbers are much harder to find.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a One-Piece Casting for the Reverse Shank. The shank is original, straight, and intact. No back mark. No mold line can be seen.

The RJ Silverstein Collection.~

 

 

 

1796-1802 15th Infantry 15mm Pewter Dug in South Miss. georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com O1796-1802 15th Infantry 15mm Pewter georgewashingtoninauguralbuttons.com R1

1798-1802 15th Regt. U.S. Infantry.

Color: A Pewter Brown.
Metal: Flat, 1-Piece, Raised Design, Cast Pewter.
Size: 15mm. Cuff Size
Albert’s: GI 28 R15v:         RV 35
Variation: 15th Regt.
Present Condition: An Excavated Specimen, Strong Planchet Condition, A Strong High Relief Pattern Remains.
Isabela’s Notes: This button’s pattern depicts a large number “15” in the center, with the country’s name, “UNITED STATES” circling around the edge in capital letters. The high relief pattern is set on a plain flat field with a plain edge border. Scarce button for collectors to find.
Reverse Button Analysis: This is a One-Piece Casting for the Reverse Shank. The shank is original and intact, butslightly crushed inward. No back mark. Thin mold line is present.

The Dan Patterson Collection.~
Dan dug in 1998 in an early Military Camp in Central Mississippi.